chapter9a The Central Nervous System 1

chapter9a The Central Nervous System 1 - Chapter 9a The...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 9a The Central Nervous System About this Chapter Anatomy of the central nervous system The spinal cord The brain Brain function Figure 9-3a Forebrain Midbrain Hindbrain Lumen of neural tube Spinal cord The Embryonic Nervous System The neural tube specializes into the seven major regions of the central nervous system A 4-week human embryo showing the anterior end of the neural tube, which has specialized into three brain regions (a) The Embryonic Nervous System At 6 weeks, the neural tube has differentiated into the brain regions present at birth. The central cavity (lumen) shown in the cross section will become the ventricles of the brain. (see Fig. 9.5) Figure 9-3b Cerebrum Diencephalon Midbrain Eye Medulla oblongata Spinal cord (b) Cerebrum Diencephalon Midbrain Medulla oblongata Cerebellum and Pons Forebrain Hindbrain The Embryonic Nervous System By 11 weeks of embryonic development, the growth of the cerebrum is noticeably more rapid than that of the other divisions of the brain. Figure 9-3c Cerebrum Diencephalon Midbrain Medulla oblongata Cerebellum Spinal cord Pons (c) Early Developmental Regions Late Developmental Regions Structure Derived from Regions Thalamus Encephalons Development CNS: Bone and Connective Tissue Brain is encased in bony skull or cranium Spinal cord runs through vertebral column Meninges lies between bone and tissues Dura mater Arachnoid membrane Pia mater Meningeal layers of the brain cushion and protect delicate neural tissue Anatomy of the Central Nervous System Figure 9-4 Cerebral hemispheres Cerebellum Cranium Cervical spinal nerves Cranium Dura mater Subdural space Subarachnoid space Pia mater Arachnoid membrane Brain Thoracic spinal nerves Lumbar spinal nerves Sacral spinal nerves Coccygeal nerve Spinal nerve Central canal Spinal nerve (b) Meningeal layers of the brain cushion and protect delicate neural tissue. (c) Posterior view of spinal cord and vertebra (a) Posterior view Body of vertebra Spinal cord Autonomic ganglion Arachnoid membrane Pia mater Dura mater White matter Gray matter Meninges Sectioned vertebrae CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM SECTIONAL VIEWS OF THE CNS ANATOMY SUMMARY Venous sinus CNS: Gray and White Matter Gray matter Unmyelinated nerve cell bodies...
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chapter9a The Central Nervous System 1 - Chapter 9a The...

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