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chapter20a Integrative Physiology II Fluid and Electrolyte Balance 1

Chapter20a Integrative Physiology II Fluid and Electrolyte Balance 1

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Chapter 20a Integrative Physiology II: Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
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About this Chapter Fluid and electrolyte homeostasis Water balance Sodium balance and ECF volume Potassium balance Behavioral mechanism in salt and water balance Integrated control of volume and osmolarity Acid-base balance
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Na+ and water ECF volume and osmolarity K+ Cardiac and muscle function Ca2+ Exocytosis, muscle contractions, and other functions H+ and HCO3– pH balance Body must maintain mass balance Excretion routes: kidney and lungs Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis
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Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis The body’s integrated responses to changes in blood volume and blood pressure Figure 20-1a Blood volume Blood pressure Volume receptors in atria and carotid and aortic baroreceptors Cardiovascular system Cardiac output, vasoconstriction Thirst causes water intake ECF and ICF volume Behavior Kidneys Conserve H2O to minimize further volume loss Blood pressure trigger homeostatic reflexes Stimulus Receptor Effector Tissue response Systemic response (a) KEY
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Blood volume Blood pressure Volume receptors in atria, endocrine cells in atria, and carotid and aortic baroreceptors Cardiac output, vasodilation Excrete salts and H2O in urine Kidneys Cardiovascular system ECF and ICF volume Blood pressure trigger homeostatic reflexes Stimulus Receptor Effector Tissue response Systemic response (b) KEY Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis Figure 20-1b
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Urine Lungs Feces Skin Water loss Water gain Totals 1.5 L/day 0.1 L/day Food and drink Metabolism 2.2 L/day 2.5 L/day 2.5 L/day 0.3 L/day Insensible water loss 0.9 L/day Intake 2.2 L/day Metabolic production 0.3 L/day Output 2.5 L/day + = 0 Water Balance Figure 20-2
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Water Balance The kidneys conserve volume but cannot replace lost volume Figure 20-3 Volume gain Volume loss GFR can be adjusted.
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