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chapter20b Integrative Physiology II Fluid and Electrolyte Balance 2

Chapter20b Integrative Physiology II Fluid and Electrolyte Balance 2

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Chapter 20b Integrative Physiology II: Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
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Potassium Balance Regulatory mechanisms keep plasma potassium in narrow range Aldosterone plays a critical role Hypokalemia Muscle weakness and failure of respiratory muscles and the heart Hyperkalemia Can lead to cardiac arrhythmias Causes include kidney disease, diarrhea, and diuretics
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Behavioral Mechanisms Drinking replaces fluid loss Low sodium stimulates salt appetite Avoidance behaviors help prevent dehydration Desert animals avoid the heat
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Disturbances in Volume and Osmolarity Figure 20-16
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Volume and Osmolarity Table 20-1 (1 of 3)
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Volume and Osmolarity Table 20-1 (2 of 3)
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Volume and Osmolarity Table 20-1 (3 of 3)
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Blood volume/ Blood pressure Osmolarity accompanied by osmolarity inhibits CVCC + Para- sympathetic output Sympathetic output Heart Force Rate Cardiac output Vasoconstriction Peripheral resistance Distal nephron Vasopressin release from posterior pituitary Arterioles Volume H2O reabsorption + + H2O intake Thirst + + Volume conserved DEHYDRATION CARDIOVASCULAR MECHANISMS RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM RENAL MECHANISMS HYPOTHALAMIC MECHANISMS Carotid and aortic baroreceptors Hypothalamic osmoreceptors Osmolarity and Blood pressure Granular cells GFR Flow at macula densa + + + + + Angiotensinogen ANG I ACE ANG II Aldosterone Na+ reabsorption Distal nephron + Hypothalamus Adrenal cortex Atrial volume receptors; Carotid and aortic baroreceptors Renin Volume and Osmolarity Homeostatic compensation for severe dehydration Figure 20-17
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Volume and Osmolarity Figure 20-17 (5 of 6) Blood volume/ Blood pressure
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