chapter20b Integrative Physiology II Fluid and Electrolyte Balance 2

Chapter20b Integrative Physiology II Fluid and Electrolyte Balance 2

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 20b Integrative Physiology II: Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Potassium Balance Regulatory mechanisms keep plasma potassium in narrow range Aldosterone plays a critical role Hypokalemia Muscle weakness and failure of respiratory muscles and the heart Hyperkalemia Can lead to cardiac arrhythmias Causes include kidney disease, diarrhea, and diuretics Behavioral Mechanisms Drinking replaces fluid loss Low sodium stimulates salt appetite Avoidance behaviors help prevent dehydration Desert animals avoid the heat Disturbances in Volume and Osmolarity Figure 20-16 Volume and Osmolarity Table 20-1 (1 of 3) Volume and Osmolarity Table 20-1 (2 of 3) Volume and Osmolarity Table 20-1 (3 of 3) Blood volume/ Blood pressure Osmolarity accompanied by osmolarity inhibits CVCC + Para- sympathetic output Sympathetic output Heart Force Rate Cardiac output Vasoconstriction Peripheral resistance Distal nephron Vasopressin release from posterior pituitary Arterioles Volume H2O reabsorption + + H2O intake Thirst + + Volume conserved DEHYDRATION CARDIOVASCULAR MECHANISMS RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM RENAL MECHANISMS HYPOTHALAMIC MECHANISMS Carotid and aortic baroreceptors Hypothalamic osmoreceptors Osmolarity and Blood pressure Granular cells GFR Flow at macula densa + + + + + Angiotensinogen ANG I ACE ANG II Aldosterone Na+ reabsorption Distal nephron + Hypothalamus Adrenal cortex Atrial volume receptors; Carotid and aortic baroreceptors Renin Volume and Osmolarity Homeostatic compensation for severe dehydration Figure 20-17 Volume and Osmolarity Figure 20-17 (5 of 6)...
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Chapter20b Integrative Physiology II Fluid and Electrolyte Balance 2

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