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chapter21b The Digestive System 2

chapter21b The Digestive System 2 - Chapter 21b The...

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Chapter 21b The Digestive System
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Regulation of GI Function Long reflexes integrated in CNS Short reflexes integrated in ENS Reflexes involving GI peptides / Hormones
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Regulation of GI Function Integration of long and short reflexes in the digestive system Figure 21-11 Sensory receptors and neurons Local stimulus Neurons of myenteric and submucosal plexuses Smooth muscles or secretory cells Inter- neurons Sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons Enteric nervous system “The little brain” Effectors Muscle contraction/relaxation or Exocrine secretion (enzymes, mucus, acid, bicarbonate), paracrines or Endocrine secretions Digestive system responses (pH, stretch, osmolarity, products of digestion) The cephalic brain External stimulus (sight, smell, etc.) Sensory receptors Stimulus Receptor Integrating center Efferent path Short reflexes Long reflexes Tissue response KEY
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Regulation of GI Function Figure 21-11 (1 of 3) Sensory receptors and neurons Local stimulus Neurons of myenteric and submucosal plexuses Smooth muscles or secretory cells Inter- neurons Enteric nervous system “The little brain” Effectors Muscle contraction/relaxation or Exocrine secretion (enzymes, mucus, acid, bicarbonate), paracrines or Endocrine secretions Digestive system responses (pH, stretch, osmolarity, products of digestion) Stimulus Receptor Integrating center Efferent path Short reflexes Tissue response KEY
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Regulation of GI Function Figure 21-11 (2 of 3) Sensory receptors and neurons Local stimulus Neurons of myenteric and submucosal plexuses Smooth muscles or secretory cells Sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons Enteric nervous system “The little brain” Effectors Muscle contraction/relaxation or Exocrine secretion (enzymes, mucus, acid, bicarbonate), paracrines or Endocrine secretions Digestive system responses (pH, stretch, osmolarity, products of digestion) The cephalic brain External stimulus (sight, smell, etc.) Sensory receptors Stimulus Receptor Integrating center Efferent path Long reflexes Tissue response KEY
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Regulation of GI Function Figure 21-11 (3 of 3) Sensory receptors and neurons Local stimulus Neurons of myenteric and submucosal plexuses Smooth muscles or secretory cells Inter- neurons Sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons Enteric nervous system “The little brain” Effectors Muscle contraction/relaxation or Exocrine secretion (enzymes, mucus, acid, bicarbonate), paracrines or Endocrine secretions Digestive system responses (pH, stretch, osmolarity, products of digestion) The cephalic brain External stimulus (sight, smell, etc.) Sensory receptors Stimulus Receptor Integrating center Efferent path Short reflexes Long reflexes Tissue response KEY
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Regulation of GI Function Reflexes involving GI Peptides Figure 21-12 Cephalic phase of digestion (feedforward) Distension Acid Presence of food Secretory cells of the stomach and small intestine GI peptides GI smooth muscle Exocrine cells of stomach, pancreas, intestine Other endocrine cells
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