conj402_exam1_2006_answers Neuro

conj402_exam1_2006_answers Neuro - CONJOINT 402 LAB TIME ;...

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Unformatted text preview: CONJOINT 402 LAB TIME ; EXAM 1 . NAME E5 ‘/ January 27, 2006 Following directions on the mark-sense form, write your name, student number and major . (PP=Pharmacy; SS=Special Permission) in the blanks and fill in the bubbles. On the blanks above, write your lab section and name. In addition, write your name on the back of thisexam. When finished with the test, place the mark-sense form inside the exam form and turn in the exam and mark-senseform together. FILL-IN THE BLANKS: Write your answers on this page. (2 points each) A. One factor that influences the movement of an io_n across a membrane is its concentration gradient. Name the second factor. _. ~ B. In what net direction will NaJr ions move through an open NaJr t channel if the membrane potential is +10 mV? W C. In a couple words, what is the definition of paresthesia? (BL D. A patient with a neuropathic pain syndrome. experiences a ‘ W painful burning sensation when his feet are lightly stroked. a What is the clinical term for this phenomenon? a—Q’Q/O ‘ E. In a couple words, what is the definition of proprioception? AM I ‘ l F. What is damaged in the Guillian—Barre syndrome? (Be MA {W specific) ‘ G. Two catecholamines are epinephrine and norepinephrine. Name the third common catecholamine. MW H. What neurotransmitter has greater action when fluoxetine is given? - g Q I. A middle aged person starts to wear reading glasses. What is i this condition called? ‘ I $4 M E %@g 15L) J. An 85 year old woman is having problems with her vision due to degeneration of the region around the fovea. What is this , condition called? ‘ Page 1 of 9 continue on next page SHORT ANSWER ' Write your answers on this page. i K. Observe the figure below. Describe What is happening at each arrow. What specific types of ion channels produce the changes in the membrane potential observed? (6 points) A (What 18 ha pening here? What spemfic type of ion channels are involved?) (2‘ M _ , 4B (What is happening here? What is this phenomena called? What specific type of ion channels are involved?) ‘ ‘AQ ( E s P ) aficgktél ~ 0&1?le Lean W C (What is happening here? What is the process called? Note that only one presynaptic terminal is involved) D (What is happening here? What specific types of ion channels are involved?) diffptfésynéét-iéactidhifpetéhtiéisi ' ' L. Pain from visceral organs is said to be “referred”. What is meant by this? Draw a diagram and use it to explain how convergence can explain this symptom. (4 points) Page 2 of 9 continue on next page - 1A 2c 3A 4c- 55 6B 7A BB 90 103 113 123 13E 14B 15A 163 17E 18D 19A .2oc 21B 22A 23A 24A 255 26D 27B 28A 29C 300 313 32c 33A 34D 35E I STARTING NOW, PLA CE ALL ANSWERS ON THE MARK-SENSE FORM MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the BEST answer. (2 points each) 1. In a healthy, resting cell, to which one of the following does the membrane have the highest permeability? a. b. c. K+ Na+ Ca++ . Which of the following have equilibrium potentials more negative than the threshold for an action potential? (choose best) 9-9-9 9‘9» Na+, Ca++ Ca”, K K”, Cl‘ 01', Ca++ ' Cl', Ca“, K+ . During one action potential, about how much does the concentration of Na+ inside the axon change? (choose best, as emphasized in class) 9999‘!” change less than one percent increases roughly 20 percent increases briefly. to approximately that outside decreases 20 percent decreases briefly to approximately that outside In which of the following locations would it be possible to find a receptor potential? 9999‘?” axon of afferent neuron cell body of afferent neuron sensory dendrites of afferent neuron dendrites of both efferent and afferent neurons cell bodies of both afferent and efferent neurons . Which one of the following types of ion channel could be found in the nodes of Ranvier of a vibration sensing afferent neuron? {DP-“99"? mechanically gated Na+ channel ligand gated Na+ channel ligand gated Cl' channel voltage gated Cl' channel voltage gated K+ channel Page 3 of 9 continue on next page 6. Refer to Figure 1, in which a thought experiment is shown. A membrane divides two compartments with the relative ion concentrations shown. If open Na+ channels are placed in the membrane (but not open KJr channels), which one of the following would occur? a. compartment A becomes more negative than B b. compartment A becomes more positive than B c. no electrical potential difference develops A B Figure 1 7. A receptor potential, like other graded potentials, is classified as a local phenonenom. Which one of the following is meant by use of this term in this way? a. A receptor potential occurs only over a few millimeters of a neuron. b. Afferent neurons located in some regions have receptor potentials, but not those located in other regions. 0 Sensory dendrites are found in some regions of the skin, but not others. (1. Afferent neurons can sense location of the stimulus as well as the modality. e. Afferent neurons have comparatively short axons. 8. Which one of the following determines the threshold in a neuron? the equilibrium potentials for the various ions the level at which voltage gated Na+ channels begin to open the concentration gradient for Na+ the concentration gradient for K+ the concentration gradients for both Na+ and Kr 9999‘!” 9. Which one of the following is FALSE? a receptor potential is never all-or-nothing a postsynaptic potential is never all—or-nothing an action potential is never graded ‘ a receptor potential sometimes may be larger than an action potential a postsynaptic potential may be either depolarizing or hyperpolarizing. 9999‘s» Page 4 of 9 continue on next page 10. Which one of the following inactivates with depolarization? NMDA channel voltage gated Na+ channel voltage gated K+ channel choice b and c are both correct all of the above are correct 99.057? 11. Refer to Figure 2. What type of ion channel would you expect to create the changes in the membrane potential shown by the M? a. B adrenergic receptor b. mechanically gated ion channel 0. voltage gated K+ channel d. NMDA receptor e. substance P receptor Figure 2 12. Suppose a chemist accidentally synthesizes a chemical that very specifically only opens mechanically gated ion channels. If, by accident, this chemical penetrated the skin of the chemist, which one of the following describes what would happen? - nothing would be felt because the normal stimulus does not 'open the ion channels touch would be felt, due to the type of afferent neuron involved a sensation of warmth, which is indicative of chemical stimulation of theskin a sensation of cold, which is indicative of chemical stimulation of the skin a new, blended sensation, since this chemical has never been experienced before 9.04.0.0?» 13. Which one of the following is best sensed by a rapidly adapting afferent neuron? a. chronic pain b. warm temperature 0. cold temperature d. blood pressure in arteries 6. Vibration 14. Which one of the following prevents voltage gated Na+ channels from opening? (choose best) a. benzodiazepine b. local anesthetic c. L-dopa d. substance P e. B-adrenergic agonist 15. Which one of the following is affected in Bell’s palsy? a. muscles in face b. proprioception in arm or leg 0. vocal cords d. C fibers in feet 6. A5 fibers in feet Page 5 of 9 continue on next page 16. Where would you expect to find a v-SNARE protein? (choose best) a. b. c. sensory dendrites synaptic vesicle astrocyte d. microglia e. node of Ranvier 17. Which one of the following neurons would you think would be most likely to release a neurotransmitter that activates a 7 transmembrane domain receptor in the postsynaptic membrane? 994.057!” afferent neuron in leg sensing proprioception afferent neuron in the leg sensing fine touch ganglion cell in retina efferent neuron innervating extraocular muscle in the eye neuron in brainstem that increases alertness as a person wakes up 18. Which one of the following is the action of the toxin from the bacteria causing botulism? ‘ a. fast postsynaptic receptors blocked b. slow postsynaptic receptors blocked c. voltage gated Na+ channels blocked d. neurotransmitter release reduced e. pain afferents in skin degenerate 19. Which one of the folloWing is different at an inhibitory smapse in comparision to an excitatory synapse? (choose best) a. equilibrium potential of ions moving through postsynaptic ion channels b. effect of Ca” on neurotransmitter release 0. postsynaptic receptors are “slow” rather than “fast” d. voltage gated ion channels in presynaptic membrane e. removal of neurotransmitter from synaptic cleft 20. Which one of the following could be an action of an antagonist for NMDA receptors? (as presented in class) a. provokes apoptosis by increasing intracellular Ca++ b. blocks action of neurotransmitter on skeletal muscles 0. reduces chronic pain 'd. blocks uptake of serotonin e. increases the effectiveness of GABA 21. A patient with tertiary syphilis looks down and is supprised to see the position of his leg. What part of the spinal cord has degenerated? (choose best, according to what was presented in class) {DP-99"?” dorsal root ganglia dorsal columns anterolateral tract ventral horn autonomic ganglia Page 6 of 9 continue on next page 22. Where does pain from the left finger cross to the right side in the central nervous system (choose best) spinal cord medulla midbrain thalamus 9999‘s basal ganglia 23. Various stimuli are applied to the toe of a patient with the right half of the spinal cord severed in the neck. Which one of the following describes the results of these tests? a. patient does feel pain in the right toe, but does NOT feel fine touch b. patient does NOTfeel pain but does feel fine touch in the right toe c. patient does NOT feel pain and does NOT feel fine touch in the right toe d. patient feels BOTH pain and fine touch in the right toe 24. A surprising feature of C pain afferents is that they release a neurotransmitter fiom branches in the skin and other peripheral sites. What tends to be the result of the release of this neurotransmitter in the periphery? I a. inflammation b. blocks sensation of pain 0. stimulates opiate receptors (1. stimulates NMDA receptors 6. binds to GABA receptor _ 25. Where is the periagueductal gray? a. hypothalamus b. dorsal horn c. cerebral cortex d. hippocampus e. midbrain 26. A child suddenly stops all activity, but retains muscle tone. The eyelids flutter, consciousness is lost, but the child remains seated. Then after 10 to 30 seconds the child continues as before the attack. Which one of the following is the most likely condition? spreading excitation from a specific focus in the brain tonic-clonic seizure partial seizure absence seizure Jacksonian March 952.0572» Page 7 of 9 continue on next page 27. 28. 29. V30. 31. 32. 33. What is the effect of an enkephalin in the dorsal horn on a neuron with its axon ascending up the anterolateral tract? a. excitation b. inhibition Which one .of the following is an effect of naloxone? blocks action of enkephalins blocks action of GABA blocks action of substance P activates NMDA receptors promotes neurodegeneration of small afferent dendrites 9999‘!” In the dorsal horn, which one of the following allows Ca++ to move into a post—synaptic neuron with prolonged activation of the pain pathway? (choose best) a. acetylcholine receptor b. GABA receptor 0. NMDA receptor d. stimulation of AB afferent e. naloxone In Huntington’s disease, a genetic mutation causes a misfolded protein to form. Which one of the following happens as a result? (choose best) a. transient ischemia attack b. necrosis 0. B amyloid forms (1. caspase activated e. ubiquitin cleaved from protein Which one of the following involves amyloid precursor protein? a. Huntington’s disease b. Alzheimer’s disease 0. ALS d. cataracts e. Parkinson’s disease Which one of the following is typically linked to closed angle glaucoma? degeneration of fovea lack of one type of opsin dilated iris UV damage to cornea UV damage to lens {DP—99‘s» Which one of the following occurs following absorption of light by rhodopsin? Na+ channels close more glutamate released more cyclic GMP forms phosphodiesterase inhibited all of the above occur 99.057?” Page 8 of 9 continue on next page 34. Which one of the following is a symptom of Meniere’s disease? (choose best) memory loss - paralysis of skeletal muscles optic neuritis sensation of spinning scotomas 9999‘!” 35. In benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, which one of the following is causing the problem? (as presented in class) a. oval window b. Eustachian tube 0. cupula d. basilar membrane e. otoconia PLACE MARK-SENSE FORNI INSIDE EXAM AND TURN THEM IN TOGETHER. Page 9 of 9 ...
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conj402_exam1_2006_answers Neuro - CONJOINT 402 LAB TIME ;...

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