conj402_exam1_2009_answers Neuro

conj402_exam1_2009_answers Neuro - CONJOINT 402 FIRST EXAM...

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Unformatted text preview: CONJOINT 402 FIRST EXAM NAME - January—30th, 2009- - -- - Following directions on the mark-sense form, write your name, (PP=Pharmacy; SS=Special Permission) in the blanks and fill in above, write your lab section and name. In LAB TIME W m student number and major the bubbles. On the blanks addition, write your name on the back of this exam. When finished with the test, place the mark-sense form inside the exam form and turn in the exam and mark-sense form together. FILL-IN THE BLANKS: ' Write your answers on this page. (2 points each) _ L C. What term refers to a decrease in the receptor potential even though the sensory stimulus remains constant? D. What structure is abnormal in Guillian-Barre disease? L_ B. What is meant by the term “lower motor neuron”? A. One factor that causes an ion to move through an open *— Q {Cf/QQ ion channel is a concentration difference. Name the ‘ v second factor. 0Q ‘ > “"4” B. Name a, common type of drug, used medically, that 4‘ Q@ C: CW blocks voltage gated Na+ channels. M (Mug _ r. J Wiwx We e Wumx i F. Name any drug that binds to the same receptor as an enkephalin. L _I__ murach T CQM» I m; Layzwa G.Name one visible abnormality in the retina in a patient with diabetic retinopathy. _] macular degeneration from “dry” macular degeneration? H. In a couple of words, what structurally distinguishes “wet” r @0441 M N “4% WM? WA? LI. Refer to projected figure A. What disorder is shown? cajc‘wmfi J. Refer to projected figure B. What is shown in this picture? Page 1 of9 SHORT ANSWER Write your answers on this page. K. During a stroke, an area is deprived of blood flow and quickly becomes necrotic. But, with time, a wider area can become damaged. According to what was said in class, what is happening in the surrounding area. Be sure to specifically mention specific molecules involved. (3 points) .WWW jL/vx mamcxcéjl—za when. was/44L {HAW sh: 2 3E @Wi/ (Mada W WJW\CJLM\63 ovuwu WM: ~NW1 Qfl‘ / (Mrvwagwjfj CK‘W “ff, \Qflu/CQ’Q/\ fiWyW, g a: waol, Eta—cmfi 7% L. Observe the figure below and note the times that presynaptic action potentials occur. Describe what happened at “X, at “Y, and at “Z. (3 points) X '- Mfiflwémficfl W a. Y“" “1" JW’LCJX , Xx 2 ‘ -70 =|< * * **** ***** FE; \9 6 P 0 W4 times of presynaptic action potentials j mficwfi V ‘ ' M. Describe glaucoma, explaining the difference between “open angle” glaucoma and “closed angle” glaucoma. List two different types of drugs used to treat glaucoma. If you like, you may use the figure below help give your answer. (4 points) Q,“ (Keg?me , s21»:- W— Mama awfiefla Lm W Mmemd (1- ' a. by flWk/Wk (@1250 (pt/fig“ 6M 24/143024?de ’Cequge/x Wm , ‘ W-Mw\ 43W [—flkfim-Q’. : STARTING NOW, PLA CE ALL ANSWERS ON THE MARK-SENSE FORM ""MULTIPLE' CHOICE: Choose the BEST‘answer; (2‘ points each) 1. Which one of the following is associated with neurofibrillary tangles in the brain? a. b. © d. C. Huntington’s disease Parkinson’s disease Alzheimer’s disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) multiple sclerosis 2. For which one of the following is increased apolipoprotein B an established risk factor? a. b. 6? d. e. Huntington’s disease Parkinson’s disease Alzheimer’s disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) multiple sclerosis 3. The drug memantine is sometimes used (often along with an anti-cholinesterase) to treat Alzheimer’s disease. What is the action of this drug? a. c. d. e. blocks re—uptake ofiserotonin blocks NMDA receptors improves insulin resistance blocks dopamine receptors stimulates caspases l l 4. Which one of the following occurs with a marked reduction in the number of (dark colored) neurons with their cell bodies in the midbrain? c. d. e. Huntington’s disease Parkinson’s disease Alzheimer’s disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) multiple sclerosis 5. A middle-aged patient begins to show erratic behavior, including spending some time in an institution. Finally, a neurologist, noticing the patient’s spontaneous muscle movements, concludes that the patient has a disorder due to a dominant gene. Which one of the following is likely the disorder? b. c. d. e. Huntington’s disease Parkinson’s disease Alzheimer’s disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) multiple sclerosis Page 3 of 9 10. A 30 year old woman begins to show some optic symptoms such as diplopia. And a neurological test strongly suggests optic neuritis. An MRI confirms the diagnosis. Which one of the following is most likely the disorder? — ~-a. — Huntington’s disease- w m- - - b. Parkinson’s disease 0. Alzheimer’s disease d. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) multiple sclerosis Which one of the following is true of a neuron (or actually any other cell)? (choose best) ~ higher concentration of KJr inside cell than in extracellular fluid lower cOncentration of Na+ inside cell than in extracellular fluid in resting neuron, plasma membrane more permeable to K+ than Na+ all of the above are TRUE a. _ .b. e. all of the above are FALSE . Which of the following have equilibrium potentials more negative than the threshold for an action potential? (choose best) a. Ca++ b. Na+ @ c1— c1. BOTH choice .“a” and choice “b” e; ' *‘ALL of the above are correct Suppose that the cell body of a neuron is depolarized to minus 50 mV due to synaptic activity. At that time, which one of the following would occur if an ion channel for Ca++ opens? (choose best) a. The electrical potential difference causes Ca++ to flow into the cell. b. The concentration gradient causes Ca++ to flow into the cell. (3 BOTH choice “a” and choice “b” are correct. d. NONE of the above are correct. Suppose the membrane potential of a neuron is minus 90 mV. In what direction will the electrical potential difference (without regard to any other factor) cause a K4r ion to move? into the cell 7b. out of the cell c. neither inward nor outward Page 4 of 9 '11. Which of the following can vary in amplitude, depending on the circumstances? (choose best) - a; - r - action potential b. postsynaptic potential c. receptor potential BOTH choice “b” and choice “c” are correct e. ALL of the above are correct 12. Which of the following terms refers to a tingling or burning sensation (usually non— painl)? paresthesia 'b.‘ " allodynia c. ' diplopia d. bradykinesia e. lancinating 13. Which one of the following best applies to typical peripheral neuropathy in diabetes mellitus? axonal degeneration b. demyelinating degeneration 141.Which~ one of the folloWing best describes the problem in Charcot—Marie-Tooth " disease? ' ~ a. genetic disorder involving abnormal superoxide dismutase b. involves formation of neurofibrillary tangles c. degeneration of neurons in basal ganglia d. degeneration of neurons in brainstem © genetic disorder involving damage to myelin 15. Volta e ated NaJr channels are opened _by depolarization and allow NaJr to flow into a cell. What type of feedback loop does this create? a. negative ’ b. positive 16. What factor causes voltage gated K+ channels to M? (choose best) ’ @ movement of the membrane potential in a more negative direction b. movement of the membrane potential in a more positive direction 0. inactivation 17. Which one of the following is NOT a treatment for multiple sclerosis? (choose best) a. alemtuzumab b. natalizumab interferon beta-l ® memantine e. glatiramer Page 5 of 9 18. Which of the following is often characteristic of multiple sclerosis? (choose best, according to what was said in class) a. As myelin degenerates, voltage gated Nat channels become more widely distributed along axon. b. In early stages of the disorder, the blood-brain barrier becomes disrupted in spots. 0. Multiple sclerosis is more common in temperate regions than in the tropics. d. Macrophages and T cells are prominent in early lesions as plaques develop ALL of the above are correct 19. Which one of the following is most 'charaCte'r'istic of Bell’s palsy? (choose most - characteristic) “glove and stocking” distribution of symptoms face on one side paralyzed, while normal on the other side symptoms become worse as body temperature increases spontaneous skeletal muscle movements tremor 9’ 9.06? 20. Which one of the following is damaged by tetanus toxin? a. voltage gated Ca++ channel b. ' 7 transmembrane domain receptor 0 - _ c_. 5 subunit postsynaptic receptor d. NMDA receptor v-SNARE protein 21. In which one of the following cases, is an anti-cholinesterase sometimes used medically? 6‘ to constrict pupil in Alzheimer’s disease c. to block skeletal muscle movement (1. to speed heart rate 22. Which one of the following neurotransmitters acts only on a seven transmembrane domain receptor, whi_ch, then leads to the formation of a second messenger that opens ion channels? (choose best) dopamine b. acetylcholine c. glutamate d. GABA Page 6 of 9 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. best) a. b. ' (’53 .. . d. . e. Which one of the following refers to phenothiazines (anti-psychotic drugs)? (choose --a. — bloeksadenosine action b. blocks re-uptake of serotonin into presynaptic terminals 0. blocks NMDA receptors CE} blocks dopamine action e. acts on 5 subunit postsynaptic receptors Which one of the following accurately refers to the NMDA receptor? 7 transmembrane domain protein site of action of fluoxetine ion channel opens only following a period of prolonged depolarization opened by GABA opened by adenosine In certain neurological situations, such as tertiary syphilis, the dorsal-medial portion of the spinal cord is preferentially damaged, leading to tabes dorsalis. Which one of the following refers to a characteristic symptom? (choose best) a. burning pain felt more or less continually in the feet b. inability to distinguish warm and cold in the feet » c. allodynia loss of sense of position of a limb e. ‘ nystagmus ' ‘ " During a seizure, the distal muscles of the arm begin twitching, and then muscle contractions gradually move more proximally. In which one of the following would you expect to see this type of seizure? @ partial seizure b. generalized seizure c. absence seizure In a seizure disorder, a drug is given that acts on voltage gated Na+ channels. Which one of the following would you expect to be its action? a. drug shortens time of inactivation _. _, drug prolongs the time of inactivation Which of the following distinguishes C pain afferent neurons and A—delta pain afferent neurons? @ C afferent neurons can release substance P in the skin C afferent neurons are myelinated, while A-delta are not C afferent neurons release glutamate, while A-delta do not A-delta afferent neurons are more closely associated with inflammation than C afferent neurons e. A-delta afferent neurons produce a more prolonged burning pain rather than a quick, bright pain 9.0.0“ Page 7 of9 29. Refer to the figure to the right. It shows a neuron that transmits pain information from -the dorsal horn to the thalamus. Consider an—-- -— inhibitory neuron with a short axon in the dorsal horn. Which of the following factors might stimulate such an inhibitory neuron, leading to inhibition of the pain neuron? a. large, myelinated afferents from fine touch receptors and ' , proprioceptors X b. neurons with cell bodies in the ' ‘ medulla and axons descending to the dorsal horn A delta afferent neurons BOTH choice “a” and choice “b” are correct BOTH choice “b” and choice “0” are correct to thalarnus C. G) C. 30. What type of molecule is anenkephalin? a. catecholamine b. derivative of L-dopa c. derivative of arachidonic acid ‘. d.‘ ..steroid W " ‘ ' @‘_“ ' peptide 6 31. In which one of the following disorders, would an adrenergic drug be given in order to open the trabecular meshwork in the eye? a. presbyopia CE) glaucoma c. macular degeneration d. cataracts V e. benign paroxymal postural vertigo 32. Which one of the following drugs is used to treat the “wet” form of macular degeneration? (choose best) a. _ cannabis b. pilocarpine c. memantine d. fluoxetine anti-VEGF antibody injection Page 8 of9 33. Which one of the following occurs in a rod when light is absorbed by rhodopsin in the eye? (choose best) Na+ channels close ~ more cyclic GMP is formed the rod becomes depolarized more glutamate is released by the rod ALL of the above occur 9999795328 34. Which one of the following directly interacts with the stereocilia of hair cells when sound Vibrations are applied to the car? a. basilar membrane b‘. tympanic membrane ' tectorial membrane d. oval window e. crista 35. Which one of the following, by moving, causes benign paroxysmal positional tectorial membrane a. b. basilar membrane 0. macula ' ‘, ’otoconia e.j “ optic disc PLACE MARK-SENSE FORM INSIDE EXAM AND TURN THEM IN TOGETHER. Page 9 of9 ...
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conj402_exam1_2009_answers Neuro - CONJOINT 402 FIRST EXAM...

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