conj402_exam1_2010_answers Neuro

conj402_exam1_2010_answers Neuro - CONJOINT 402 LAB TIME...

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Unformatted text preview: CONJOINT 402 LAB TIME FIRST EXAM ' NAME January 29th, 2010 Following directions on the mark—sense form, write your name, student number and major (PP=Pharmacy; SS=Special Permission) in the blanks and fill in the bubbles. On the blanks above, write your lab section and name. In addition, write your name on the back of this exam. When finished with the test, place the mark-sense form inside the exam form and turn in the exam and mark-sense form together. FILL-IN THE BLANKS: Write your answers on this page. (2 points each) A. What disorder is associated with beta-amyloid aggregates? B. What term refers to a decrease in the receptor potential . even though the stimulus remains constant? WWV\ dmw C. What part of a neuron is the only location where a . ‘ receptor potential is found? WW MW D. Name a m_olecule attacked by one of the botulism toxins. 5 N ft R E media/viz E. Name the type of ion channel that can open only after a N M D G Mg++ leaves the channel. F. What 15 the neurotransmitter released by_______m A- delta fibers? w G. What part of the neuron is abnormal 1n Guillian- Barre disease? , . WV“ H. What term refers, in general, to pain due to neuronal abnormalities rather than to a painful stimulus? I. What is out of place in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo? J. What readily observable factor distinguishes “wet” (as opposed to“dry”) macular degeneration? Page 1 of 9 SHORT ANSWER Write your answers on this page. K. The figure to the right shows a cell with several different types of ion channels. Assume the resting membrane potential is —70 mV (5 points) Draw in and label typical equilibrium potentials for Na+, KL and Cl‘. Now draw what happens to the membrane potential as each event below happens: 1. Draw what would happen to the membrane potential if the gated Cl" ion +60 channel opens and then closes. 2. Next draw what would happen if the gated K+ channel opens and then closes. 3. Next draw what would happen if a gated 0 Na+ channel opens and then stays open. 4. Finally, draw what would happen if the (:9 gated Cl' opens while the above Na+ ® channel remains open. L. Observe the figure to the right. Describe what is happening FAG W in the dorsal horn in this illustration. Where is the “PAG”? \ ' med uili'a Indicate which synapses are excitatory and which are /”‘ ‘ ’ to / WW Wfi’t ”‘6 9%] 4 W i a at:::er:£.¥¢ Page 2 of 9 STARTING NOW, PLACE ALL ANSWERS ON THE MARK-SENSE FORM MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the BEST answer. (2 points each) 1. Which one of the following best describes the protein that is the source of amyloid plagues? a. voltage gated Na channel . membrane protein playing a poorly understood role in development c. capsiacin activated 1on channel d. G protein e. SNARE protein 2. Which one of the following disorders is linked to degeneration in the neurons in the midbrain containing the dark colored molecule neuromelanin? Parkinson’s disease b. Alzheimer’s disease c Huntington’s disease (1. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis e Marie Charcot Tooth disease 3. Which one of the following involves degeneration of spinal neurons as well as neurons in the brain? (choose best) ‘ fiamyotrophic lateral sclerosis b. Parkinson 5 disease c. Alzheimer’s disease d. Huntington’s disease e. glaucoma 4. Following stroke, glutamate diffusing from the initial region of damage causes further damage via “excitotoxicity’”. Which one of the following is activated in this process? (choose best) cell adhesion molecules beta amyloid protein superoxide dismutase neurotropin caspase (CD/1999‘s Page 3 of 9 5. Which one of the following proteins is one of the best known, genetic risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease? (choose best) a. neurotropin b. NMDA receptor 0. superoxide dismutase d. alpha-synuclein © apolipoprotein E 6. In a typical resting neuron, which one of the following are present? ungated K+ channels b. ungated Na+ channels c. ungated Ca” channels 7. Which one of the following is TRUE about an equilibrium potential? a. An equilibrium potential will not normally be above the threshold for an action potential b. An equilibrium potential is normally always above the threshold for an action potential. 6; At the equilibrium potential the electrical potential difference exactly counterbalances the tendency of ions to diffuse due to the concentration \' gradient (1. At the equilibrium potential the electrical potential difference reaches the point at which it acts in the same direction as the concentration gradient. e. An equilibrium potential occurs only in afferent (sensory) neurons. 8. At a t ical restin membrane otential, in what direction would K+ tend to move through an open K+ channel due only to the effect of the concentration gradient? a. into the cell out of the cell c. neither into or out of the cell 9. Observe the thought experiment illustrated to the right. If only K+ channels open in the membrane, which one of the following would occur? a. compartment A would become positive with respect to compartment B a compartment A would become negative with respect to compartment B A c. no electrical potential difference will develop 10. Given that the Cl" equilibrium potential is -70 mV and the membrane potential is ~70 mV, what is the net effect if Cl' ion channels open? a. Cl' moves inward b. Cl' moves outward ® Cl" moves neither inward nor outward Page 4 of 9 11. Which one of the following describes normal ionic conditions inside and outside cells? a. Na+ and KL both higher outside than inside b. Na+ and KL both higher inside than outside @ Na" higher outside, K+ higher inside (1. Na" higher inside, K+ higher outside 12. What factor gates the ion channels found throughout the axon of an afferent neuron? a. ligand gated b. mechanically gated c. temperature gated voltage gated e. all of the above found in axons 13. Which one of the following is FALSE about the-ion channels responsible for the action potential? K+ channels are opened by depolarization. a. b. K+ channels are closed by repolarization. 6:; Above the threshold, theopening of some K+ channels leads to a positive d. e. feedback situation in which ever more K+ channels open. Na+ channels open due to depolarization. Na+ channels close both due to repolarization and due to inactivation. 14. Which of the following are used as treatments for multiple sclerosis? a. interferon beta-l b. corticosteroids c. alemtuzumab d. natalizumab all of the above are used in multiple sclerosis 15. Refer to the figure to the right. Which one of the following gates the Ca++ channels shown? ligand a. b. neurotransmitter ‘ © voltage d. reuptake blocker e. mechanical Page 5 of 9 16. Which one of the following neurotransmitters is NOT removed directly from the synaptic cleft by re-uptake into the presynaptic terminal? a. dopamine b. serotonin c. GABA acetylcholine e. glutamate 17. Which one of the following degenerates in diabetic peripheral neuropathy? a. axon b. myelin 18. Which of the following is TRUE about tabes dorsalis? a. symptom of Alzheimer’s disease b. symptom of diabetic peripheral neuropathy 0. results in Charcot—Marie—Tooth disease (1. results in Bell’s palsy disturbs proprioception 19. Which one of the following does NOT have a 5 subunit fast type of postsynaptic rece tor? norepinephrine b. acetylcholine c. GABA d. serotonin e. glutamate 20. Which one of the following best describes paresthesia? a. diplopia b. ataxia @ tingling or burning abnormal sensation d. nystagmus e. aphasia 21. Refer to the figure to the right. Which one of the following best describes the neuron shown by the arrow? a. unmyelinated afferent neuron associated with temperature b. unmyelinated afferent neuron associated with pain © myelinated afferent neuron associated with fine touch (1. myelinated afferent neuron associated with pain e. autonomic efferent neuron Page 6 of 9 22. Which one of the following best describes ane enkephalin? peptide binding to opioid receptor b. neurotransmitter released by A- delta afferent neurons c. inflammatory paracrine released by C axons in axon reflex (1. causes allodynia e. blocks the action of morphine 23. Which one of the following best describes substance P? a. binds to opioid receptor b. produces effect similar to morphine @ peptide released by C afferent neurons d. binds to and opens NMDA channel e. blocks inflammation 24. To what receptor does naloxone bind? a. GABA b. glutamate @ opioid d. serotonin e. muscarinic 25. Which one of the following is an example of allodynia? a. morphine producing profound analgesia even through it is not a normal constituent of the body lightly stroking the skin leads to a sensation of pain c. acetylcholine can producing both fast and slow postsynaptic potentials d. pain in the diaphragm felt in the shoulder region e. substance P causing inflammation peripherally as well as sensation of pain centrally 26. Which one of the following is a serotonin-norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitor? a. memantine b. acetaminophen c. enkephalin d. morphine tricyclic antidepressant Page 7 of 9 27. According to what was said in class, which one of the following best describes why Visceral pain is “referred”? (choose best) a. The dorsal columns cross to the other side of the brain in the medulla. Afferents from the viscera converge on the same neurons in the dorsal horn as afferents from the skin. c. Stimulation of mechanoreceptors in the skin excites inhibitory intemeurons in the dorsal horn. d. The cerebral cortex is somatotopically organized. e. Substance P is released by Visceral afferents. 28. Which one of the following would you expect to help with closed angle glaucoma? @ drug that causes constriction of pupil b. drug that causes dilation of pupil 29. In what disorder does a patient feel phantom limb pain? a. ALS patient amputation c. Guillian—Barre d. Parkinson’s disease e. benign paroxysmal positional vertigo 30. For which one of the following might an NMDA blocker such as memantine be used? (choose best) a. Alzheimer’s disease b. neuropathic pain @ both Alzheimer’s disease and neuropathic pain 31. Which one of the following would NOT be used for a chronic pain syndrome? a. tricyclic antidepressant b. NMDA blocker VI naloxone d. gabapentin e. serotonin and norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitor 32. A physician inspects the retina of a patient and notices fluffy appearing spots of edema and lipid droplets. Which one of the following seems most likely? 2 3 diabetic retinopathy b. glaucoma c. macular degeneration Page 8 of 9 33. Which one of the following is associated with “drusen” deposit? a. diabetic retinopathy b. glaucoma c. benign paroxysmal positional vertigo 6 macular degeneration e. Alzheimer’s disease 34. Which one of the following is the reason why anti-VEGF antibodies are used? a. open canal of Schlemm b. reduce production of aqueous humor c. stimulate hair cells (1. bind otoconia Q slow abnormal growth of blood vessels 35. Which one of the following does NOT happen following the absorption of light by rhodopsin? a, phosphodiesterase activated more glutamate released c. less cyclic-GMP present d. Na+ ion channels close e. G protein activated PLACE MARK-SENSE FORM INSIDE EXAM AND TURN THEM IN TOGETHER. Page 9 of 9 ...
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