conj402_exam2_2006 Neuromuscular Answers

conj402_exam2_2006 Neuromuscular Answers - CONJOINT 402 LAB...

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Unformatted text preview: CONJOINT 402 LAB TIME " ‘ EXAM 2 ' NAME 1Z8 z February 17, 2006 Following directions on the mark-sense form, write your name, student number and major (PP=Pharmacy; SS=Special Permission) in the blanks and fill in the bubbles. On the blanks above, write your lab section and name. In addition, write your name on the back of this exam. When finished with the test, place the mark-sense form inside the exam form and turn in the exam and mark-senseform together. FILL-IN THE BLAN KS: Write your answers on this page. (2 points each) A. This structure is the attachment place for thick and thin filaments in skeletal muscle sarcomeres. Z’AIJ Q B. These structures are necessary for conducting the action _ ' potential into the interior of the skeletal muscle fiber. '1’" + U if) L) l e S C. This protein of the thin filament blocks myosin binding sites V . when the muscle is at rest. 4'?on 0 Wiy 0.5 i ’3 D. This is the name of the small specialized muscle fibers found _ ¥ inside the muscle spindle. “Kira. US (hi Eéfg E. -A smaller diameter muscle fiber will produce less tension } because it has fewer . ‘5‘” F. Posture and orienting movements are controlled by neurons whose cell bodies are located in the . b r04 ‘45 G. The mechanical response to a single action potential is called a [P ( + . w l (JA I H. This is the region in the midbrain that degenerates in . , _ Parkinson’s disease. SVES¥0mW€NL n 1% {Zia I. This is the neurotransmitter that is released by neurons of the GA A VLPO, the sleep-promoting nucleus found in the anterior B _ hypothalamus. J. Specific damage to the arcuate fasciculus would cause this kind 09 5451 QC.“ 5‘ h of aphasia. 5»? kg , S I 0»... Page 1 of 8 continue on next page , _ SHORT ANSWER Write your answers on this page. K. Describe how calcium regulates contraction (when cross-bridge cycling occurs) in a smooth muscle cell. What happens that leads to relaxation? (5 points) C03“ binAs +0 CkoLoAuUVM Cw'k'cwW/wévuiim (MAR/Lek; MAL emzu‘vne. Moosi‘n usher (Ll/min Kit/UgSL (thé))wl,\;ch PMOSi—‘V‘WVWKS «Wu»- meosin kewAiwlLOW'V‘B is-vtariclfie. I chl‘i‘h “i9 éccur. Wlexaikafi new: at; m I - 03+ “WagesWhWA Aime»; $uu... 40 “Heinr- W4‘V*+”\ W’ATQMLS- W from? 693+ CW 6‘? “RN?- 0.140.50‘. «he, WS’l‘l‘l’u‘l’ivClY Mat/e. am.ij m7osin lijki' (>an “$79542... (Fig.4.?) remove; m pheSpkaJ'fi. ‘ 03"" hawk ‘ A" m w' mega. W fiSWW WAR/it», Mug? bavwwfis ) . 4M4.“ Dag/WWW €56 -ML¢LK‘ ' L.- Answer all of the following questions concerning muscle tone. 0 _‘ Define muscle tone. 0 Diagram the neuronal circuitry that is the major factor responsible for skeletal muscle tone. 0 Name a disorder .in which there is abnormal muscle tone. (5 points) \ Vivi-agate. Anna. \S m Wfii‘smmg h Passive. Shirk -4149 \Q We» than!“ éwaetw flswmsaréfia ,RV. mvSolQ +on€\ ’Tha 3+0?) reflex is as Raga/H we. “Peal loueK loo? réfl u Lm‘i‘lhfi M Vsd e» lahjfifl ‘ M USc} % I .t C“ t h a a ' g gfitxfih’l' - vex/$633 3W [\MN ta Same. ' m usma 4% I “DiSo at m S w‘rH/x aim ormd Shaw reusata ma. .. a . towed») . gla- Sax/U5 lgaaék LKYP‘W “th agomr ((hypaiivnig * ' ~ hn5 ism,“ in 99 N0» 1 . continue on next page 4 Multiple choice key: 1A 2D 3C 4E SB 6C 78 BC 9A 100 11C 12D 13B 14C 15D 168 178 18A 198‘ (ZOB 21E ~220 230 24B '. 25A 268 27D 28A 290 30C 31 D 32B 33B 34C 35D STARTING NOW, PLACE ALL ANSWERS ON THE MARK-SENSE FORM MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the BEST answer. (2 points each) 1. Thick and thin filaments are found in a. all types of muscle bi skeletal and cardiac muscle c. skeletal muscle only 2. What normally happens when a skeletal muscle cell is damaged? a. the muscle fiber is lost irreversibly b. an adjacent muscle fiber divides to replace the lost muscle cell 0. adjacent muscle fibers divide to generate myoblasts (1. satellite cells divide to generate myoblasts 3. If you observed an isotonic contraction under the microscope, you would see no change in the width of either the A-band or the I-band an increase in the width of the I-band a decrease in the width of the I-band an increase in the width of the A-band a decrease in the width of the A-band EDP-HOST?“ 4. Which of the following is part of the thick filament? a. titin b. myosin light chain c. myosin heavy chain (1. myosin ATPase e. all of the above are part of the thick filament 5. The powerstroke refers to the conformational change that occurs when ATP is hydrolyzed after the myosin head binds strongly to the thin filament when calcium binds to troponin after the myosin head detaches from the thin filament after the myosin head binds ATP SPY-“PST.” 6. Which protein is directly involved in skeletal muscle relaxation? (CHOOSE BEST) a. myosin ATPase b. acetylcholinesterase c. CaT—ATPase d. myosin light chain phosphatase e. myosin light chain kinase Page 3 of 8 ' continue on next page 7. What is true about the “feet” found between the T-tubules and the lateral sacs of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)? a. they are part of the T-tubule voltage sensor b. they are part of the SR calcium channel c. they are part of the SR voltage sensor 8. A patient with myasthenia gravis experiences muscle weakness because fast glycolytic fibers degenerate less acetylcholine is synthesized there are fewer functional acetylcholine receptors autoantibodies block the release of synaptic vesicles a toxin blocks the release of synaptic vesicles 9999‘!» 9. In this disorder there is delayed relaxation of muscle following contraction. Muscle fibers fire bursts of action potentials due to a defect in repolarization. a. myotonia b. clonus c. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis d. tetanus 10. - Skeletal muscle fibers have an optimal length at which they produce maximal tension. This will be the length at which (CHOOSE BEST) a. the series elastic elements are fully stretched out b. the thin filaments just start to overlap with the thick filaments c. the maximal number of cross-bridges can form (1. the thin filaments start to overlap with the thin filaments on the opposite side of the sarcomere Figure l ‘100 00110 40 60 '80 100120 140 1160180200 AP time (ms) 11. In Figure 1, what best describes what is happening at the point of the curve labeled with the asterisk? a there is a slow rate of Ca++ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum activity of the CaH-ATPase slows the rate of rise of Ca++ in the cytoplasm b. 0. there is a slow rise in the development of external (measurable) tension in the muscle fiber (1. there is a slower rate of depolarization in the muscle fiber Page 4 of 8 continue on next page 12. Which of the following o'ccurs in the disorder tetanus (lockj aw)? increased neurotransmitter release from excitatory neurons in the spinal cord increased neurotransmitter release from somatic efferent neurons decreased neurotransmitter release from excitatory neurons in the spinal cord decreased neurotransmitter release from inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord decreased neurotransmitter release from autonomic postganglionic neurons 9999‘s» 13. Which of the following occurs when muscle is at rest (not active)? creatine kinase is inhibited creatine phosphate is formed creatine phosphate is broken down creatine kinase is formed creatine kinase is broken down 99.0579 14. The innervation ratio refers to the number of a. motor units in a muscle b. synapses on a muscle fiber 0. muscle fibers per motor neuron d. motor neurons per muscle fiber e. motor units activated during recruitment 15. Which type of muscle fiber would be rich in myoglobin? a. small oxidative b. fast oxidative 0. fast glycolytic (1. both a and b 6. both b and c 16. The somatic efferent neurons that are the easiest to excite have the largest cell bodies have the smallest cell bodies innervate the largest numbers of muscle fibers innervate the muscle fibers that are the easiest to fatigue innervate the muscle fibers that produce the most tension 9999‘.” 17. Which of the following is true about central fatigue? occurs when ATP is depleted from the muscle fiber is a result of a decreased excitation from the CNS to the muscle occurs when the muscle fiber fails to respond to the somatic efferent neuron may be due to an increase in inorganic phosphate levels in the muscle fiber may be due to inhibition of CaH release from the SR of the skeletal muscle fiber 99.0.0“? Page 5 of 8 continue on next page 18. An electromyogam is a recording of actions potentials in muscle fibers action potentials in somatic efferent motor neurons action potentials in muscle spindle afferents mechanical activity in motor units mechanical activity in single muscle fibers EDP-‘99”? 19. A neuron innervating a muscle. cell releases neurotransmitter that hyperpolarizes the muscle cell. This type of regulation occurs in a. skeletal muscle b. smooth muscle c. both smooth and skeletal muscle d. neither smooth nor skeletal muscle 20. What is the role of 1P3 in smooth muscle physiology? opens a ligand-gated CaH channel in the plasma membrane opens a ligand-gated CaH channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane inhibits myosin light chain phosphatase is a regulatory molecule that can depolarize smooth muscle P‘PP‘P’ 21. Which of the following occurs as a direct result of gamma motor neuron activation? a. inhibition of the muscle spindle afferent stretch of the extrafusal fibers contraction of the extrafusal fibers stretch of the intrafusal fibers contraction of the intrafusal fibers 9999‘ 22. According to What was said in lecture, an increase in muscle tension will result in (CHOOSE BEST) a. activation of the alpha motor neuron b. activation of the gamma motor neuron c. activation of the Golgi tendon organ afferent (1. activation of the muscle spindle afferent 23. In the withdrawal reflex, the pain afferent excites an inhibitog; interneuron that inhibits ipsilateral flexors excites ipsilateral flexors inhibits ipsilateral extensors both b and 0 none of the above 9999‘?” 24. Which of the following is true about the primary motor cortex? it is located in the post-central gyrus there are more neurons dedicated to motor control of the hand than motor control of the upper arm there are few connections with the primary somatosensory cortex the left primary motor cortex controls movements on the left side of the body neurons do not synapse directly onto somatic efferent motor neurons of the spinal cord 99.057?” Page 6 of 8 continue on next page 25. An individual suffers damage to the lei: side of the cervical spinal cord. Which of the following symptoms would you observe? a. weakness and loss of dexterity in the limbs on the left side b. weakness and loss of dexterity in the limbs on the right side 0. paralysis of postural muscles of the trunk (1. both a and c 6. both b and c 26. A neuron whose axon is in the left anterior corticospinal tract of the spinal cord has its cell body in the right motor cortex left motor cortex right brainstem nucleus left brainstem nucleus left ventral horn of spinal cord 9999‘?” 27. Which of the following is an oscillatory behavior that might be observed in an individual with an upper motor neuron disorder? a. resting tremor b. intention tremor c. ataxia d. clonus e. hypertonia 28. Lewy bodies are abnormal intracellular inclusions typically seen in the brains of patients with Parkinson’s disease Huntington’s disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis hypotonia cerebellar disorders 99.0.57?” 29. What is the nature of the genetic mutation in Huntington’s disease? a. deletion which leads to lack of the protein huntingtin b. defect in the protein alpha-synuclein c. expanded polyglutamine tract in the protein huntingtin d. deletion of the polyglutamine tract in the protein huntingtin 30. Which of the following is a characteristic of REM sleep? a. alpha waves b. delta waves c. lack of skeletal muscle tone (1. all of the above 31. A dopamine agonist might be used to treat which disorder? a. insomnia b. schizophrenia _ c. bipolar disorder (1. Parkinson’s disease e. depression Page 7 of 8 continue on next page 32. The cell bodies of neurons that release the peptide neurotransmitter orexin are found throughout the cerebral cortex only in the hypothalamus in both the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex in both the hypothalamus and brainstem 9‘99"? 33. Individuals with narcolepsy have a rapid transition to slow-wave sleep a rapid transition to REM sleep a lack of REM sleep a lack of desynchrom'zed activity during REM sleep 9.0 .ch 34. Amphetamines work as stimulants because they a. enhance histamine release b. block histamine receptors 0. increase levels of dopamine and norepinephrine d. block GABA receptors e. increase the effect of GABA 35. Difficulty in understanding instructions would occur in (CHOOSE BEST) conduction aphasia global aphasia Wernicke’s aphasia both global and Wernicke’s aphasia conduction, global and Wernicke’s aphasia 99.09%» PLACE MARK-SENSE FORM INSIDE EXAM AND TURN THEM IN TOGETHER. Page 8 of 8 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/03/2012 for the course CONJ 402 taught by Professor Thomaslinder during the Fall '10 term at University of Washington.

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conj402_exam2_2006 Neuromuscular Answers - CONJOINT 402 LAB...

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