conj402_exam2_2008_answers

conj402_exam2_2008_answers - CONJOINT 402 LAB TIME SECOND...

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Unformatted text preview: CONJOINT 402 LAB TIME SECOND EXAM NAME . ,o February 25*, 2008 Following directions on the mark-sense form, write your name, student number and major (PP=Pharrnacy; SS=Specia1 Permission) in the blanks and fill in the bubbles. On the blanks above, write your lab section and name. In addition, write your name on the back of this exam. When finished with the test, place the mark-sense form inside the exam form and turn in the exam and mark-senseform together. FILL-IN THE BLANKS: Write your answers on this page. (2 points each) A. Name the cell type found in adult skeletal muscle that is ‘ H . responsible for muscle regeneration. 3 ‘1 L6 Cell B. Name the sensor that monitors muscle tension. t ‘. laurel-Lou of“ can C. Skeletal muscle fibers shrink in diameter due to disuse or denervation. This is called (Ll‘rc; Fla . Name the membrane protein that causes relaxation in muscle by decreasing the concentration of calcium in the cytosol. ELM ' A T Pa 3‘ Q C (\A S (A rt J E. Large diameter muscle fibers produce more tension during a twitch because they have more F. In the primary motor cortex, neurons controlling simple movements are arranged in an orderly fashion so that there is a representation of the body surface. This is referred to as a m (Lin [(1 organization. G. Intracellular inclusions that are rich in alpha-synuclein are a characteristic pathological feature of Parkinson’s disease. LO h b . These intracellular inclusions are called L W Y QC ‘ e S H. Name the peptide neurotransmitter that is deficient in _ narcolepsy. O V e )C iM What is abnormal about the protein huntingtin in someone ‘ ‘ with Huntington’s disease? I PQ'MLLQ v Name the type of aphasia characterized by fluent, empty ‘ _ P a ‘ speech, and difficulty with speech comprehension. QJ/ V“ k KC S Page 1 of9 SHORT ANSWER Write your answers on this page. K. Activation of a smooth muscle cell leads to an increase in intracellular Ca”. Describe the steps whereby Ca++ activates contraction in a smooth muscle cell. (3 points) Cm“ C;_w"'lm°‘(”"-" ' Cdfi’CAflJW’OKLw-li‘m w M’lu‘mt mom damn kawLSc: (Marc), MLCK Vhos phot’k‘Mfl‘CS 44¢ M30554 head) mi (14 cmSS»b(Fd§e (Ewe-ling +0 Occur. cal [3 W’S L. What is activated by the alpha motor neuron? What is activated by the gamma motor neuron? When does alpha-gamma co-activation occur? Describe how alpha-gamma co— activation acts to maintain muscle spindle sensitivity. (4 points) Mpbu MW?!” Hem/an -0,¢,h\/LLR MmeA iisz (Hp-“chit WW?“ " Lrs‘ G’mea W’i‘ov’ hCUrDV‘S (‘Hyw Maxie $135,131 (9 I [HE’k‘k‘SMMA COI'LLC-ib’Vfl—«h‘oh OCCUrS dofih Wme W 049m. MN Simbidrq Mifw-cfisfd at” Why} y MN 5¥WQW§ (“BMW/W do 804mm} oi vl’LuL {mph 3° 0‘5 "’10 K"era-(9 MEAL‘US¥ Mm. iezvxofiin 11% I; ‘ Ma 8. m men.er New Wm M 0 "W chm Sp ~0~4§~Ke mmvewir) _ M. How does the motor control system vary the amount of force produced by a contracting muscle? Your answer should include an explanation of the size principle. (3 points) 4N mow mix/H scldem wan/Was agree is Page 2 of9 Multiple Choice Key (DmVOU'I-waA 53 UJFHUUO>|TIW>O>>OIDUUmOO>DOWOOUOOOOITIOOOO STARTING NOW, PLA CE ALL ANSWERS ON THE MARK -SENSE FORM MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the BEST answer. (2 points each) 1. Which of the following causes a skeletal muscle cell to appear striated under the light microscope? a. T—tubules b. arrangement of sarcoplasmic reticulum c. alignment ofmyofibrils d. alignment of fascicles e. arrangement of mitochondria 2. Which of the following is NOT associated with the thin filament? a. actin b. tropomyosin c. titin d. troponin e. site where myosin binds 3‘ Which one of the following best illustrates the sliding filament mechanism of skeletal muscle contraction? a. the A-band shortens during muscle contraction b. the A-band lengthens during muscle contraction c. the I—band shortens during muscle contraction d. the l'band lengthens during muscle contraction 4. In skeletal muscle, myosin dissociates from actin due to a. phosphorylation of the myosin head b. CaJrJr binding to troponin c. ATP binding to myosin d. hydrolysis of ATP e. powerstroke 5. In what part of the skeletal muscle fiber would you find voltage-gated Na+ channels? (CHOOSE BEST) T-tubule membrane sarcolcmma (muscle fiber plasma membrane) sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane all of the above A and B only 9999‘s» Page 3 of9 6. Which of the following is true about skeletal muscle fibers? 99.0er summation of EPSP’s required for action potential each skeletal muscle fiber is innervated by many somatic efferent neurons the EPSP in the skeletal muscle fiber is always above threshold there are both excitatory and inhibitory synapses on skeletal muscle fibers skeletal muscle fibers only fire action potentials after stimulation by a burst of somatic efferent neuron action potentials 7. In a patient with myasthenia gravis, an EMG potential recorded from a single motor unit declines with repeated stimulation. This occurs because a. b. c. (1. there is an increase in centralfatigue there is an increase in peripheral fatigue fewer muscle fibers are firing action potentials fewer somatic efferent motor neurons are firing action potentials 8. Which of the following is true about excitation—contraction coupling in skeletal muscle fibers? (CHOOSE BEST) a. b. d. CaH enters from the extracellular fluid via a Ca++ channel in the T—tubule membrane the action potential is conducted into the interior of the cell via the sarcoplasmic reticulum the voltage sensor of the T—tubule interacts with the foot of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca++ channel 1P3 opens the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca++ channel 9. During an isometric contraction 0999‘?” length changes, but tension remains constant tension is greater than load tension is exactly equal to load I-bands increase in width the muscle lengthens because load is greater than tension 10. What principle is illustrated by the length-tension relationship? (CHOOSE BEST) 99.057?” mechanical responses can summate tension is proportional to the amount of ATP in the cell contraction velocity is a function of muscle length tension is proportional to the number of active cross—bridges none of the above Page 4 of9 11. In Figure 1, what explains why the solid line (twitch tension; marked with asterisk) does not rise as quickly as the dotted line? a. there is a slow rate of Ca++ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum b. activity of the Ca++-ATPase slows the rate of rise of CaJr+ in the cytoplasm 0. time needed to stretch the series elastic elements slows the rise in tension (1. the muscle fiber is slower to depolarize than the motor neuron 100 ---- -' 0/0 active E 1‘ cross—bridges § Figure 1 w tension OUT 20 40 60 80 100 120 MO 160 180 200 AP time (ms) 12. Which of the following is responsible for the symptoms in the disease tetanus (lockj aw) due to infection with the bacterium C lostridium terani? a. low extracellular CaJ’Jr b. low intracellular CaH e. decreased neurotransmitter release by inhibitory interneurons in the spinal cord d. decreased neurotransmitter release by somatic efferent neurons e. antibodies to acetylcholine receptors 13. Creatine phosphate can be hydrolyzed by myosin is formed when ATP is abundant is formed when ADP is abundant is formed when muscle starts working is formed when intracellular Ca++ levels increase 999.579: Page 5 of9 14. The blood level of is tested to determine whether there has been skeletal muscle fiber damage. Ca++ a. b. creatine phosphate 0. creatine kinase d. glycogen e. ATP 15. All of the following are features of slow oxidative muscle fibers EXCEPT slower rate of ATP hydrolysis by myosin richly supplied by capillaries contain myoglobin large diameter resistant to fatigue 09957:» 16. Observe Figure 2 in which an experimenter repeatedly stimulates the nerve to a muscle. This figure shows a. peripheral fatigue b. central fatigue 0. both peripheral and central fatigue Tetanus c: ' is g it; . i . 59 f 3 g . Figure 2 .3 E .. 4 _ $ 2 ‘ . «_ '* ' E a O .2 31W“ “W W1lHilllllllllllllHHHHllllHlllllHIlllll3HlllllllllltiéllélélllWilllllllllllllll3 ceded Time 17. An electromyogram is a recording of mechanical activity in single muscle fibers mechanical activity of motor units action potentials in muscle fibers EPSPs in muscle fibers action potentials in somatic efferent neurons 0 FLS‘ P‘P 18. Varicosities are places where thick and thin filaments are attached in smooth muscle groups of smooth muscle cells that are electrically coupled sites of neurotransmitter release onto smooth muscle places where Ca++ ions are stored in smooth muscle FL 9 Fr P Page 6 of9 19. Which of the following occurs during relaxation in smooth muscle? Ca++—calmodulin activates MLCP (myosin light chain phosphatase) declining Cali+ levels activate MLCP MLCP turns off MLCK (myosin light chain kinase) activity 1P3 activates MLCP MLCP activity exceeds MLCK activity 09.057?” 20. All of the following can stimulate contraction in smooth muscle EXCEPT depolarization spread by gap junctions parasympathetic postganglionic neuron sympathetic postganglionic neuron somatic efferent neuron regulatory molecule that increases concentration of 1P3 99957539 21. Which of the following stimulates action potentials in the muscle spindle afferent? (CHOOSE BEST) synaptic input from gamma motor neuron synaptic input from alpha motor neuron muscle contraction muscle stretch 53*.“ 9‘?” 22. A doctor uses a reflex hammer to give a sharp rap to the patellar tendon. What happens next? (CHOOSE BEST) flexion at the knee muscle spindle afferents activate alpha motor neurons to quadriceps muscle spindle afferents activate alpha motor neurons to hamstrings co-activation of alpha and gamma motor neurons to hamstrings Golgi tendon organ afferents cause inhibition of motor neurons to quadriceps rut—Logs 23. In the circuitry for the withdrawal reflex, there an inhibitory swapse between the a. pain afferent and motor neuron to ipsilateral extensors b. pain afferent and motor neuron to ipsilateral flexors c. interneuron and motor neuron to ipsilateral extensors d. interneuron and motor neuron to ipsilateral flexors 6. none of the above 24. Which of the following is true about the primary motor cortex? a. contains cell bodies of neurons that make direct synapses onto spinai cord motor neurons b. is located in the postcentral gyrus c, the left motor cortex controls movements on the left side of the body d. there are fewer neurons devoted to control of the hands than the feet Page 7 of9 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. Damage to the lateral corticospinal tract in the neck will affect motor behavior of the a. limbs on the same side of the body b. limbs on the opposite side of the body c. eyes, face and tongue This is the name for the oscillatory behavior that occurs as a result of hyperreflexia in upper motor neuron disorders. a. chorea b. ataxia c. clonus d. bradykinesia 6. action tremor Hypertonia is a characteristic of which of the following? a. Parkinson’s disease cerebellar damage Huntington’s disease REM sleep all of the above 9299.0“ Which of the following is a typical finding in patients that are newly diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease? a. tremor specifically associated with movement b. asymmetric presentation (symptoms affect one limb or one side of the body) c low muscle tone d. dementia e. chorea Drugs used to treat Parkinson’s disease are designed to increase the level of this neurotransmitter. a. acetylcholine b. serotonin c. norepinephrine d. orexin e. dopamine Output from this part of the motor control system produces coordinated movement by comparing information about the intended movement with sensory feedback about motor performance. a. cerebellum be substantia nigra c. basal ganglia d. thalamus e. hypothalamus Page 8 of9 31. Which of the following patterns is considered a “desynchronized” EEG? a. delta rhythm b. alpha rhythm c. EEG recorded during REM sleep d. EEG recorded during stage 4 sleep 32. According to what was said in lecture, what is true about the orexin-releasing neurons? a. have broad, diffuse projections that increase general activity in the cerebral cortex b. have broad, diffuse projections that decrease general activity in the cerebral cortex 0 make direct inhibitory connections to arousal-promoting nuclei d. make direct excitatory connections to arousal-promoting nuclei e. increase firing rate during sleep 33. Which of the following neurotransmitters is NOT released by a nucleus that is active during arousal? a. histamine b. orexin c. norepinephrine d. GABA e. dopamine 34. Which of the following is a symptom of narcolepsy? (CHOOSE BEST) excessive daytime sleepiness difficulty maintaining sleep rapid transition into REM sleep cataplexy all of the above are symptoms of narcolepsy 0:94.057?” 35. Damage to the arcuate fasciculus causes global aphasia conduction aphasia Wernicke‘s aphasia Broca’s aphasia 9.0 par» PLACE MARK—SENSE FORM INSIDE EXAM AND TURN THEM IN TOGETHER. Page 9 of9 ...
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conj402_exam2_2008_answers - CONJOINT 402 LAB TIME SECOND...

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