conj402_exam2_2009 - CONJOINT 402 LAB TIME SECOND EXAM NAME...

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Unformatted text preview: CONJOINT 402 LAB TIME SECOND EXAM NAME .Februaryflflmw 23 , - . Following directions on the mark-sense form, write your name, student number and major (PP=Pharmacy; SS=Special Permission) in the blanks and fill in the bubbles. On the blanks above, write your lab section and name. In addition, write your name on the back of this exam. When finished with the test, place the mark—sense form inside the exam form and turn in the exam and mark-senseform together. FILL—IN THE BLANKS: Write your answers on this page. (2 points each) A. Name the thin filament protein that blocks myosin binding sites when skeletal muscle is at rest. B. Name the sensor that is activated in response to muscle stretch. C. Name the molecule that reacts with ADP to generate ATP in the first few seconds of muscle activity. (substrate molecule, no; the enzyme) D. Name the oxygen—binding protein that is abundant in oxidative muscle fibers. E. Give the name for the mechanical response to a single action potential. F. Damage to the causes ataxia, hypotonia, and intention tremor. G. Name the term for this symptom of narcolesy in which there is a sudden loss of skeletal muscle tone while awake. l__ H. Name a symptom considered a positive sign (due to a loss of inhibition) that is typically seen with damage to upper motor neurons. 1_ I. Name the neurotransmitter whose effects are increased by the sleep-promoting drugs such as zolpidem (Ambien) or the benzodiazepines. J. Name the axon tract that links Wernicke’s area to Broca’s area. Specific damage to this tract is thought to cause conduction aphasia. _J_ Page 1 of 9 ’SHORT ANSWER Write your answers on this page. K. Briefly describe what occurs to increase Ca++ in a smooth muscle cell. 0 following depolarization 0 in the absence of any change in membrane potential (3 points) L. Using the figure below, draw the circuitry for the withdrawal reflex. Be sure to show how reciprocal innervation is used to prevent the activation of antagonist muscles during the behavior. (4 points) M. Briefly describe the role of the orexin-releasing LHA nucleus in the control of sleep and arousal by answering the following three questions. When are the LHA neurons most active? What do LHA neurons activate? In what disorder is orexin deficient? (3 points) Page 2 of9 STARTING Now, PLA CE ALL ANSWERS ON THE MARK-SENSE FORM ' MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the BEST (ans‘Wer. (2 points each) 1. Which of the following is not found in smooth muscle? (CHOOSE BEST) a. thick filaments b. thin filaments c. myofibrils d. sarcoplasmic reticulum e. Ca++-ATPase 2. The membrane that forms the T-tubule is continuous with the a. nuclear membrane b. sarcolemma (muscle plasma membrane) 0. sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane 3. Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an X-linked genetic disorder in which a. the dystrophin complex fails to form, making the muscle fiber susceptible to contraction-induced damage b. muscle regeneration does not occur because satellite cells are defective c. muscles are weak because of defective synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction (1. there is delayed relaxation Of muscles following contraction 4. All of the following are part of the thin filament EXCEPT a. troponin b. tropomyosin c. actin d. titin e. myosin-binding site 5. Figure 1 shows a cross—bridge in the rigor configuration, when the myosin head is tightly bound to the actin filament. Which of the following best describes what happens next in cross—bridge cycling? a. powerstroke b. ATP binds to myosin c. ATP hydrolysis . d. CaJr+ binds to tropomyosin 1 ,. am“ filament e. ATP binds to actin Page 3 of9 6. Which of the following proteins plays a direct role in muscle relaxation? (CHOOSE BEST) voltage— gated Na+ channel T-tubule voltage sensor Na+/K+-ATPase acetylcholine receptor Ca++-ATPase 9995.7?” 7. In the regulation of skeletal muscle contraction Ca+“ binds to tropomyosin, causing a conformation change Ca++ binds to troponin, causing a conformation change Ca+"-calmodulin binds and activates myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) cross-bridge cycling can occur when ATP levels increase Ca++ binds to myosin, allowing cross—bridge cycling to occur {DP-HOV?” 8. Which of the following occurs during excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle? (CHOOSE BEST) a. 1P3 opens a li gand- gated channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum b. depolarization causes a conformation change in tropomyosin c. depolarization opens a voltage-gated Ca++ channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum d. depolarization causes a conformational change in the T—tubule voltage sensor e. . depolarization activates the Ca++—ATPase 9. Figure 2 shows an EMG recording from a patient with myasthenia gravis. Which of the following is true about the EMG potential indicated by the arrow? a. it is smaller due to a depletion of Ca++ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum b. it is smaller because fewer somatic efferent neurons are firing action potentials c. it is smaller because fewer muscle fibers are firing action potentials d. both B and C are true 6. none of the above is true 3 '1 r» 4 .9 E \ i H «W f l f i E, i 5 \ fl +4 ; ~ _ 0 MW 1 x "J a 8 K ’ ‘xxf/ "\., “’0 0 20 . 4o 60 80 time (ms) time ofMN stin'uiius % 4 Page4 of9‘ 10. Which of the following is true during an eccentric contraction, when the muscle lengthens? i a. there is a decrease in the width of the I~band b. there is a decrease in the width of the A—ban‘d " c. tension is exactly balanced by load d. tension is greater than load e. load is greater than tension 11. In Figure 3, which of the following best explains the region of the graph between L3 and L4 (indicated by the bracket)? l2. l3. 14. a. b. c. d. Ca++ release at these lengths is sufficient to activate 100% of the cross—bridges the Ca++—ATPase is less active in this range, so maximal tension is achieved maximal tension can be generated at a range of lengths because the central part of the thick filament is devoid of cross—bridges the series elastic elements are fully stretched at these lengths Figure 3 relative tension I I I I I I I I I I l l I .I L L. 2 L3 muscle length Ll Which of the following explains why maximal force is not generated during a skeletal muscle twitch? a. b. Ca++ levels in the cytosol start to drop before the series elastic elements are fully stretched a single action potential does not cause enough Ca++ release to activate 100% of the cross—bridges Summation can occur in skeletal muscle fibers because (CHOOSE BEST) a. b. C. the time course of the muscle action potential is rapid relative to the time course of the contraction each skeletal muscle fiber is innervated by multiple somatic efferent neurons both A and B are true Which of the following can cause muscle spasms and tetanic contractions? 9.94.0.3?” central fatigue low extracellular calcium low intracellular calcium antibodies to acetylcholine receptors decreased opening of Voltage— gated Na+ channels Page 5 of9 15. $09.09*?» 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Fast glycolytic muscle fibers have a fast contraction velocity because they have more myofibrils a more rapid mode of ATP generation more myoglobin ’ ' ‘ - a myosin that hydrolyzes ATP at a faster rate a faster rate of action potential conduction What is true about the somatic efferent neurons with the smallest cell bodies? a. they innervate the fast oxidative muscle fibers ‘ b. they innervate the muscle fibers that are the fastest to fatigue 0. they are the easiest to excite d. they are the most difficult to excite 6. they innervate the muscle fibers with the largest diameter An electromyo gram is a recording of a. action potentials in somatic efferent neurons b. action potentials in muscle spindles 0. action potentials in muscle fibers (1. EPSPs in muscle fibers e. mechanical activity in muscle fibers In smooth muscle, Ca++ levels regulate the activity of (CHOOSE BEST) a. myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) b. myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) 0. both MLCK and MLCP In smooth muscle, contractile proteins are attached to varicosities intercalated discs myofibrils T-tubules dense bodies 9999‘.” A neuron innervating a muscle cell releases a neurotransmitter that hyperpolarizes the muscle cell. This type of regulation occurs in a. smooth muscle only skeletal muscle only both smooth and skeletal muscle b. c. d. neither smooth muscle nor skeletal muscle Page 6 of9 21. 999.6%» 22. 23. 24. 25. Figure 4 shows the activity of a muscle spindle afferent. Which of the following allows the stretch to be detected even though the muscle is contracting? input from the Golgi tendon organ afferent reciprocal innervation ' ‘ ' alpha- gamma co-activation Figure 4 inhibition of the alpha motor neuron v i V g ‘ inhibition Of the gamma motor neuron Action potentials in the muscle spindle afferent: t I | t l i l .1 I 3 2 Competitors. :- - Which of the following fires action potentials in response to an increase in muscle tension?? a. alpha motor neuron b. gamma motor neuron 0. muscle spindle afferent d. Golgi tendon organ afferent e. C—fiber neuron According to what was said in lecture, the stretch reflex is a key component of a. orienting behaviors b. rhythmic behaviors c. withdrawal from a painful Stimulus d. muscle tone er muscle movement during REM sleep Which of the following are upper motor neurons concerned with the control of muscles in the trunk? neurons with axons in the lateral corticospinal tract neurons with axons in the anterior corticospinal tract neurons with axons in the dorsal columns neurons with cell bodies in the basal ganglia neurons with cell bodies in the cerebellum .09"ng Where do axons of the lateral corticospinal tract cross over to the side of the body that they control? cortex thalamus medulla spinal cord axons of the lateral corticospinal tract do not cross over 09.0.02” Page 7 of9 ~ m. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. Which of the following is true about the primary motor cortex? a. it is located in the postcentral gyrus b. it contains neurons that synapse directly onto somatic efferent neurons in the spinal cord - ‘ " ‘ ‘ ' ' c. the left primary motor cortex controls movements in the left arm d. " there are few connections with the primary somatosensory cortex All of the following are symptoms of Parkinson’s disease EXCEPT a. chorea ‘ b. ’ resting tremor c. bradykinesia d. hypertonia e. slowness of movement Which of the following is true about the cerebellum? (CHOOSE BEST) a. damage to the cerebellum causes hypertonia ' b. along with the motor cortex and brainstem, the cerebellum contains “upper motor neurons” 0. the cerebellum helps produce coordinated movements by comparing the motor plan of the intended movement with sensory feedback about motor performance d. both A and B are correct Upon autopsy, it is found that a patient’s brain contains Lewy bodies that are rich in the protein alpha—synuclein. This is characteristic of which of the following disorders? a. Huntington’s disease b. Parkinson’s disease c. Broca’s aphasia d. Wernicke’s aphasia e. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Which of the following disorders is caused by an expanded polyglutamine tract in the mutated protein? a. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis b. narcolepsy c. myotonic dystrophy d. Parkinson’s disease e. Huntington’s disease Page 8 of9 3-1. 32. 33. 34. 35. Drugs that increase the level of norepinephrine in the brain are used to treat a. Parkinson’s disease b. Huntington’s disease 0. insomnia d. excessive daytime sleepiness e. " schizophrenia Which of the following EEG patterns is recorded during slow-wave sleep (Stage 3 - and 4)? a. alpha rhythm b. beta rhythm c. delta rhythm d. desynchronized EEG Histamine-releasing neurons in the TMN nucleus of the hypothalamus (CHOOSE BEST) a. are most active during REM sleep b. are least active during arousal 0. make direct inhibitory connections to arousal—promoting nuclei in the brainstem d. are most active during arousal e. both A and B are true Which of the following is a symptom of narcolepsy? inability to enter into REM sleep excessive movement of skeletal muscles during REM sleep excessive daytime sleepiness inability to comprehend speech intention tremor 999.097?” A patient with a large left hemisphere lesion has difficulty both with speech comprehension and speech production. Which of the following disorders does the patient have? conduction aphasia global aphasia Wernicke’s aphasia Broca’s aphasia 999‘.” PLACE MARK-SENSE FORM INSIDE EXAM AND TURN THEM IN TOGETHER. Page 9 of9 ...
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conj402_exam2_2009 - CONJOINT 402 LAB TIME SECOND EXAM NAME...

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