conj402_exam2_2010 Neuromuscular_answers

conj402_exam2_2010 Neuromuscular_answers - LAB TIME...

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Unformatted text preview: LAB TIME CONJOINT 402 SECOND EXAM NAME February 22"“, 2010 Following directions on the mark-sense form, write your name, student number and major (PP=Pharmacy; SS=Special Permission) in the blanks and fill in the bubbles. On the blanks above, write your lab section and name. In addition, write your name on the back of this exam. When finished with the test, place the mark-sense form inside the exam form and turn in the exam and mark-sense form together. FILL-IN THE BLANKS: Write your answers on this page. (2 points each) A. Name the protein that is found in the T~tubule membrane and is involved in excitation-contraction coupling. (A descriptive name is OK.) B. Name the term for a maximal skeletal muscle contraction that occurs in response to a volley of action potentials. FC. Name the protein whose activity is responsible for relaxation in skeletal muscle. Catt w fiv‘t‘flagm D. Name the protein that binds Ca++ in smooth muscle. CalMéndwiifl ‘1 E. Name the moleCule that opens the ligand-gated Ca++ channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of smooth muscle cells 1P3 7 F. Name the specific location of the primary motor cortex. l7G. Name the efferent neuron that forms a synapse with an intrafusal fiber. PrfizfiWffm-i 3 my try); 4 MM SmmMm H. Name a type of drug that enhances the effect of the neurotransmitter GABA. ban 2.0 $5 aaeéam a, z. wattage I. Name the disorder in which damage in the frontal lobe causes patients to have difficulty producing speech, while retaining the ability to comprehend speech. Bra USS a PM, tie! {A a, J. Name the sleep stage that is characterized by a desynchronized EEG, and a lack of skeletal muscle tone. R EM SEQ? Page 1 of 9 SHORT ANSWER Write your answers on this page. K. Describe how Ca++ regulates contraction in skeletal muscle, i.e. how an increase in calcium in the cytosol causes changes that allow cross—bridge cycling to occur. Be sure to describe the important regulatory proteins. (3 points) 41- A. 5 3%} l «Q‘s “h ? ‘ Old/1% 6' . M wit champ? at W 5 W??? B W W 5‘ “‘3 A “‘3 5 r 93:} Q? at {4:43 {Q C? QVCWU t” a L. What does it mean to say that the neuromuscular junction has a high safety factor? What occurs in the disorder myasthenia gravis, and how does this affect the safety factor? What type of drug is used to treat myasthenia gravis? (4 points) WA ‘ ' .u ,» wwg teat am 駧 the» max/reg paterfimé . EM M Mme? 6L fimw ESE Whalsimmxfiwfigfi ensure, now-e be. fife»? motive, Rafi/pit? «'5 w Wfifiéfinmwéifi “We $35.9. 113%“ W»; 50 - p firefliééfléiw a MqMW—mm grater-lg, ES was 9 My twat 5% 43A fingereé‘fiwt . d] . hat neurotransm1tter 1s re ease by neurons of the sleep-promotlng nucleus, VLPO? Describe the connections made by the neurons of the VLPO, and how these promote the sleep state. You may use the diagram at the right. (3 points) \I L? 0 law rammed, /f ~~~~~~~ match-9% hx'hl%r‘- w” ' at m. ms. VLPQ mama/r Mm 0“" @le " chili": \ M s *9 {Mi “We Ward” ; mmaft‘e‘fia ‘ nuclei I) fivt’fixmc‘g sir/Wm at}? J, Slaw, é _ 3 maffifiwfig ' 4; nMWWMWWW th‘zmmumncwfl Page 2 of 9 "14 hihzg’mfi" ak.€rfi€~§~€ éwmtwfif STARTING NOW, PLACE ALL ANSWERS ON THE MARK-SENSE FORM MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the BEST answer. (2 points each) 1. Fusion of myoblasts is an early step that leads to which of the following: a. stimulation of satellite cell proliferation development of skeletal muscle cells 0. formation of intercalated discs 2. In which type of muscle can cells be electrically coupled? (choose best) a. cardiac muscle only b. smooth muscle only c. skeletal muscle only d cardiac and skeletal muscle cardiac and smooth muscle 3. All of the following are found in smooth muscle EXCEPT a. actin b. myosin troponin . Ca++ATPase e. cross-bridges 4. In cross-bridge cycling, which of the following occurs immediately before the powerstroke? (choose best) myosin binds to actin b. myosin binds to ATP c. myosin hydrolyzes ATP (1. myosin dissociates from actin 5. Which of the following is responsible for rigor mortis? a. peripheral fatigue b. central fatigue 0. lack of Ca++ lack of ATP e. hyperactive stretch reflex 6. Which of the following is required to cause a single action potential in a skeletal muscle fiber? @3 a single action potential in the somatic efferent neuron that forms a synapse with it b. a volley of action potentials from the somatic efferent neuron that forms a synapse with it c. summation of EPSP’s from several different excitatory inputs to the muscle fiber d. summation of mechanical responses Page 3 of 9 7. Which of the following occurs in the disorder myotonic dystrophy? a. muscle atrophy due to degeneration of somatic efferent neurons there is delayed relaxation of muscle following contraction c. hyperactive stretch reflex and abnormal muscle tone d. muscle spasms due to loss of inhibitory inputs in the spinal cord e. weakness due to defective synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction 8. In which part of the skeletal muscle cell would you find voltage-gated Na+ channels? (choose best) ' a. sarcolemma (muscle cell plasma membrane) b. T—tubule membrane 1 both the sarcolemma and the T-tubule membrane (1. the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane e. there are no voltage-gated Na+ channels in skeletal muscle cells 9. Which of the following is true during an isotonic contraction? there is a decrease in the width of the I-band there is an increase in the width of the l-band there is a decrease in the width of the A-band there is no change in the width of either the A-band or the I-band the muscle lengthens because load is greater than tension 999.493 10. Refer to the graph in Figure 1. Which of the following best explains what occurs at length L5? Ca++ has dropped to its resting level and so the muscle fiber is fully relaxed at. b. stretch to this length prevents Ca++ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum no tension can develop because there is no overlap between thick and thin filaments d. L5 is the length at which load is exactly balanced by tension e. the series elastic elements are fully stretched at L5 Figure 1 C .9 m C 0.) +4 (I) .2 +4 t_o Q) 5— L1 L2 L3 muscle length Page 4 of 9 11. In a skeletal muscle twitch (shown in the Figure 2) the increase in tension is delayed due to time required to stretch series elastic elements b. the increase in tension is delayed due to the time required to activate excitation contraction coupling 0. there is always maximal tension due to the high safety factor Figure 2 100 % active cross—bridges ([CEWD —- tension 0 . OT 20 4O 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 AP time (ms) 12. Which of the following conditions favors the formation of creatine phosphate? high level of ATP inside the muscle cell b. high level of ADP inside the muscle cell c. high level of Ca++ in the cytosol d. high level of Ca“ in the extracellular fluid e. depolarization of the muscle cell 13. Which of the following is true about peripheral fatigue in a skeletal muscle cell? a. occurs when ATP is depleted ® is a decline in performance due to previous contractile activity 0. is due to a lack of excitation from the descending pathway neurons d. is due to a lack of excitation from somatic efferent neuron e. occurs as soon as creatine phosphate is depleted 14. Slow oxidative fibers have a slow contraction velocity because they a. have fewer myofibrils b. generate ATP using oxidative phosphorylation c. have more myoglobin, which interferes with cross-bridge cycling d. a slower rate of action potential conduction (g) a myosin that hydrolyzes ATP at a slower rate Page 5 of 9 15. Which of the following is true about fast glycolytic muscle fibers? they are innervated by the somatic efferent neurons with the smallest cell bodies they are rich in myoglobin they are resistant to fatigue they are part of small motor units used to sustain posture they produce more force than fast oxidative fibers @9935» 16. Recruitment to increase force during muscle contraction involves a. addition of myofibrils to increase muscle fiber diameter b. activation of more muscle fibers per motor unit @ activation of more and larger motor units all of the above 17. Dense bodies are a. sites of neurotransmitter release onto smooth muscle b. groups of electrically coupled smooth muscle cells @ sites of attachment of thick and thin filaments in smooth muscle (1. organelles where Ca++ ions are stored e. dark bands that correspond to the location of thick filaments 18. A neuron innervating a muscle cell releases a neurotransmitter that causes h e olarization of the muscle cell. This type of regulation occurs in a. skeletal muscle only @} smooth muscle only 0. both skeletal muscle and smooth muscle d. neither skeletal muscle nor smooth muscle 19. Which of the following changes is required before cross-bridge cycling can occur in smooth muscle? a.~ actin filament needs to be phosphorylated {12} myosin head needs to be phosphorylated c. smooth muscle cell must be depolarized d. Ca++ must bind to troponin e. Ca++—calmodulin must activate creatine kinase 20. A doctor gives a sharp rap to the patellar tendon to elicit a stretch reflex. Which of the following is the proprioceptor that is activated? ' a. C-flber neuron b. Golgi tendon organ muscle spindle d. Meissner’s corpuscle e. gamma motor neuron Page 6 of 9 21. Which of the following fires action potentials as a result of a muscle contraction? a. muscle spindle afferent @ Golgi tendon organ afferent c. gamma motor neuron d. alpha motor neuron e. pain afferent 22. In the crossed~extensor reflex, a pain afferent excites an interneuron that a. inhibits motor neurons that project to extensors on the contralateral side of the body b. excites motor neurons that project to flexors on the ipsilateral side of the body @ excites motor neurons that project to extensors on the contralateral side of the body (1. excites motor neurons that project to flexors on the contralateral side of the body 23. In what part of the CNS would you find the cell body an upper motor neuron involved in controlling fine movements of the left hand? a. left ventral horn of the spinal cord b. left primary motor cortex 0. right ventral horn of the spinal cord @ right primary motor cortex e. right brainstem 24. According to what was said in lecture, motor units that activate proximal postural muscles on the left side of the body receive input from which of the following upper motor neurons? (choose best) v a. neurons with axons in left anterior corticospinal tract b. neurons with axons in right anterior corticospinal tract c. neurons in brainstem descending pathways @ all of the above 25. Which of the following is a negative sign that would be observed in an upper motor neuron disorder? a a. hypertonia b. clonus c. resting tremor d. hyperreflexia Ce) paresis (incomplete paralysis) 26. Which of the following is a typical symptom seen in a patient that is newly diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease? a. intention tremor b. low muscle tone c. clonus bradykinesia e. chorea Page 7 of 9 27. Drugs that increase the level of dopamine improve symptoms in which of the following disorders? a. Huntington’s disease b. cerebellar disorder ('99 Parkinson’s disease (1. upper motor neuron disorder e. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) 28. Which of the following is true about Huntington’s disease? (choose best) a. hypertonia and resting tremor are typical symptoms b. clonus is a typical symptom c. gene mutation causes loss of function of the protein huntingtin gene mutation causes a toxic gain of function in protein huntingtin e. involves specific degeneration of neurons in the substantia nigra 29. Which of the following is successfully treated with deep brain stimulation? a. Huntington’s disease b. narcolepsy 0. upper motor neuron disorder Parkinson’s disease e. aphasia 30. Which brain structure functions to compare information about the intended movement with sensory feedback about motor performance? (choose best) a. hippocampus b. substantia nigra c. basal ganglia d. hypothalamus g) cerebellum 31. Whic of the following describes ataxia? loss of coordination due to cerebellar disorder b. loss of language ability due to left hemisphere lesion 0. abnormal motor behavior seen in upper motor neuron disorder d. sudden loss of skeletal muscle tone while awake e. oscillatory behavior triggered by muscle stretch 32. All of the following are neurotransmitters released by neurons of the arousal- promoting nuclei EXCEPT a. norepinephrine C13) glutamate c. serotonin d. histamine Page 8 of 9 33. Which of the following is true about the orexin—secreting neurons of the hypothalamus? a. they are most active during REM sleep b. they are most active during non-REM sleep © they excite cells in the arousal-promoting nuclei d. they excite cells in the sleep-promoting nucleus, VLPO 34. Which of the following drugs is a stimulant used to decrease daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy? (a) modafinil b. antihistamine c. gamma hydroybutyrate d. benzodiazepine e. zolpidem 35. Which of the following is associated with cataplexy? a. damage to the arcuate fasciculus b. damage to the cerebellum c. inability to enter into REM sleep d. inability to comprehend speech (a decreased action of orexin PLACE MARK-SENSE FORM INSIDE EXAM 'AND TURN THEM IN TOGETHER. Page 9 of 9 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/03/2012 for the course CONJ 402 taught by Professor Thomaslinder during the Fall '10 term at University of Washington.

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conj402_exam2_2010 Neuromuscular_answers - LAB TIME...

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