conj402_exam2_2011 - CONJOlNT 402 LAB TIME EXAM TWO NAME...

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Unformatted text preview: CONJOlNT 402 LAB TIME EXAM TWO NAME February 18‘“, 2011 ‘ Following directions on the mark-sense form, write your name, student number and major (PP=Pharmacy; SS=Specia| Permission) in the blanks and fill in the bubbles. On the blanks above, write your lab section and name. In addition, write your name on the back of this exam. When finished with the test, place the mark—sense form inside the exam form and turn in the exam and mark-sense form together. FILL—IN THE BLANKS: Write your answers on this page. (2 points each) Briefly, what part ofthe sarcomere corresponds to the A—band in skeletal muscle? Name the type of muscle fiber that is innervated by the gamma motor neuron. Name the type of muscle fiber that is most susceptible to fatigue. Name the enzyme in smooth muscle that is activated by Ca++-ca|modulin. Name the term that describes when neurons are arranged in a way that reflects the organization ofthe body. The primary motor cortex is an example of a region that is organized this way. Name the neurotransmitter precursor that is used to treat symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. ' Name the motor disorder that results from a dominant genetic defect, and which causes the symptom of uncontrolled, dance-like movements. Name the neurotransmitter that is released by neurons of the sleep— promoting nucleus VLPO, which is located in the anterior hypothalamus. During an attack of cataplexy, an abrupt decrease in may cause a patient to collapse. This is the general name for a disorder that specifically affects speech (either comprehension or expression). Page 1 of 9 SHORT ANSWER Write your answers on this page. K. Describe the sequence of events whereby an action potential in a skeletal muscle fiber leads to an increase in Ca“ in the cytosol. Be sure to describe the role played by the T-tubules and the sarcoplasmic reticulum. (3 points) L. Name the two types of proprioceptors that we discussed in class. Where is each one specifically located in a muscle? What information does each proprioceptor provide to the CNS? (4 points) ‘ M. Briefly describe what occurs during intention tremor. Damage to what part of the brain causes this symptom? (3 points) Page 2 of 9 STARTING NOW, PLACE ALL ANSWERS ON THE MARK-SENSE FORM MULTIPLE CHOICE: I Choose the BEST answer. (2 points each) 1. Which ofthe following is true about satellite cells? a. generate connective tissue that replaces damaged skeletal muscle generate connective tissue that forms tendons muscle damage stimulates satellite cell proliferation satellite cells are actively proliferating in healthy muscle Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by an absence of satellite cells {DCLOU‘ 2. ln skeletal muscle, which ofthe following causes myosin to dissociate from actin? a. ATP binding to myosin b. ATP hydrolysis c. decreased Ca” d. increased Ca++ 3. ln cross—bridge cycling, which step immediately precedes the powerstroke? a. ATP hydrolysis b. ATP binding to myosin c. ATP binding to actin d. myosin head binding to actin e. myosin head dissociating from actin 4. in skeletal muscle, which of the following occurs when ATP is depleted? a. central fatigue ' b. peripheral fatigue c. rigor mortis d. tetanus 5. Which of the following proteins hydrolyzes ATP'as part of its function? a. the pump that moves Ca++ into the sarcoplasmic reticulum v b. the channel that releases Ca++ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum c. myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) d. actin e. , troponin Page 3 of9 '6. To which of the following proteins does Ca++ bind in the regulation of skeletal muscle contraction? a. calmodulin troponin tropomyosin myosin head actin {DQ00- 7. Muscle weakness occurs in the disorder myasthenia gravis because a. muscle cells degenerate b. somatic efferent neurons are less able to excite muscle cells c. there is a defect in the coupling between the T-tubule voltage sensor and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca++ channel d. there is a decrease in the recruitment of motor units e. antibodies to myosin prevent cross-bridge cycling 8. Which ofthe following would affect the safety factor at the neuromuscularjunction? a. rate of cross-bridge cycling b. decrease in creatine phosphate c. _ peripheral fatigue in the muscle fiber d. decreased number of acetylcholine receptors e. summation of mechanical responses 9. Observe the figure at right. What is shown? m Hm. Lammmriw a. the maximal mechanical response for a 30 g ‘ b. an isometric contraction an isotonic contraction d. length-tension relationship » .l Contraction time {\J 6:3 D Tension {mg} ‘3 Bill M) Si) Si) 39% 11.20 Single action Time {ms} potential Page 4 of9 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Which ofthe following is true about a skeletal muscle twitch? a. it is the maximal mechanical response for a muscle fiber b. it is the mechanical response to a volley of action potentials c. it is the response to a single action potential d. both "a" and “c” are true Which ofthe following decreases when muscles are stretched so that there is less overlap of thin filaments with thick filaments? a. the amount of Ca++ released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum b. the muscle membrane potential c. the relative tension produced by the muscle fiber Which ofthe following best explains why a low concentration of Ca” in the extracellular fluid Would cause tetany (muscle spasms)? a. nerve and muscle cells are hyperexcitable ' b. there is insufficient Ca++ to promote muscle contraction c. there is insufficient Ca++ to promote muscle relaxation d. low extracellular Ca++ increases neurotransmitter release by the somatic efferent neuron Which ofthe following would increase the level of creatine kinase in the plasma? a.) muscle hypertrophy b. muscle degeneration c. creatine supplementation d. increased ATP in the muscle cell Which of the following determines the contraction velocity of a muscle fiber (in other words whether it is a fast or slow fiber)? a. myoglobin content b number of mitochondria c. concentration of creatine phosphate d. rate at which myosin hydrolyzes ATP e number of myofibrils Which of the following best explains the rule for recruitment of motor units? (choose best) a. the largest somatic efferent neurons are the easiest to activate b. the smallest somatic efferent neurons are the easiest to activate c. the glycolytic muscle fibers are the easiest to activate d. the oxidative muscle fibers are the easiest to activate Page 5 of9 16. Which ofthe following occurs if axons of somatic efferent neurons innervating a muscle are severed? a. muscle fibers increase in diameter by adding myofibrils b. muscle fibers shrink in diameter c. muscle fibers switch from oxidative to glycolytic d. muscle fibersswitch from glycolytic to oxidative 17. An electromyogram is a recording of a. mechanical activity in muscle fibers b. action potentials in muscle fibers c. muscle fiber EPSPs 18. Which of the following is involved in regulating smooth muscle activity? a. gap junctions b. somatic efferent neurons c. tropomyosin d. T-tubules e. upper motor neurons 19. In smooth muscle, what occurs to allow cross-bridge cycling to occur? a. phosphorylation of the myosin head 'b. phosphorylation ofthe myosin binding site on actin c. conformational change in thin filament proteins to expose myosin binding site 20. A neuron that synapses onto a muscle fiber releases the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. This can be true for a. skeletal muscle only b. smooth muscle only c. both smooth muscle and skeletal muscle 21. Which of the following neurons will fire action potentials as a direct result of an increase in muscle tension? a. muscle spindle afferent gamma motor neuron alpha motor neuron Golgi tendon organ afferent upper motor neuron eeev Page 6 of9 27. Which ofthe following is a positive sign that would be observed in an upper motor neuron disorder? a. hypertonia intention tremor paresis lack of reflexes resting tremor {139.06 28. Resting tremor is a characteristic symptom that occurs following damage to the a. substantia nigra thalamus cerebellum primary motor cortex lateral corticospinal tract {napo- 29. What protein is found to accumulate in Lew'y bodies? a. antibodies to acetylcholine receptors huntingtin alpha-synuclein beta-amyloid dopamine receptors {napo- . 30. Which component ofthe motor control system performs error correction so that movements are appropriately targeted and coordinated? a. substantia nigra basal ganglia brainstem nuclei. muscle spindle afferent cerebellum {napo- 31. All of the following occur during REM sleep EXCEPT a. lack of skeletal muscle tone decreased firing of norepinephrine—releasing neurons ofthe LC rapid eye movements slow waves in the EEG vivid dreaming {00.90- 32. Narcolepsy is associated with a deficiency in which of the following? a. histamine b. norepinephrine C. orexin ‘ d. REM sleep e. dopamine Page 8 of 9 33. Which ofthe following is the mechanism of action of the stimulant, amphetamine? a. decreases effect of GABA inhibits serotonin reuptake (SSRl) orexin agonist orexin antagonist . stimulates release and blocks reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine o 9.9 U 34. "Z—drugs" such as zolpidem, eszolpiclone, and zaleplon enhance the effect of which of the following neurotransmitters? a. serotonin b. norepinephrine c. orexin d. GABA e. Histamine 35. A patient suffers from global aphasia. What other disorder is likely? a resting tremor ' problems with motor control on the left side of the body b. c. problems with motor control on the right side of the body d. cataplexy PLACE MARK-SENSE FORM INSIDE EXAM AND TURN THEM IN TOGETHER. Page 9 of 9 ...
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conj402_exam2_2011 - CONJOlNT 402 LAB TIME EXAM TWO NAME...

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