conj402_final_2006_answers (Digestion, Nutrition, Muscle, Neuro)

Conj402_final_2006_answers (Digestion, Nutrition, Muscle, Neuro)

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Unformatted text preview: fl CONJOINT 402 LAB TIME FINAL EXAM March 15, 2006 NAME K6:f Following directions on the mark-sense form, write your name, student number and major (PP=Pha1macy; SS=Special Permission) in the blanks and fill in the bubbles. On the blanks above, write your lab section and name. In addition, write your name on the back of this exam. When finished with the test, place the mark-sense form inside the exam form and turn in the exam and mark-senseform together. FILL-IN THE BLAN KS: Write your answers on this page. (2 points each) A. What is the lipoprotein that is involved in reverse cholesterol transport? B. Give the name for the folds on the 'enterocyte apical plasma membrane that increase the surface area for absorption. C. Name the cell type in the liver that is responsible for phagocytizing aged red blood cells and recycling iron. D. This is the type of motility that occurs in the small intestine during the digestive period. E. Name a hormone that has the effect of slowing stomach emptyg'ng. F. This is the name for the intracellular iron binding protein. - G. Parasympathetic axons projecting to enteric neurons are found in the H. When the larynx is elevated during a swallow, this structure tips down to cover the trachea. I. This paracrine is secreted by ECL cells in the stomach. J. Name the protein that is translocated to the apical plasma membrane when acid secretion is stimulated. HDL. - MILFOVI “I, KUP-C-Car call or" raiw‘culo Quota Ml ? ml tell Sayer/rim? i on C “b :4 GL P"! Cigiergflwisfrzonéé) ferrl‘i’ifl Vaaug mam/d e, i lo‘H‘I’S Migi‘mmime H“? K1 ATPoLse. Page 1 of 12 continueon next page - SHORT ANSWER Write your answers on this page. K. Describe the proposed mechanism for the action of the hormone hepcidin in regulating iron absorption by the duodenum. Which protein is affected by hepcidin? How does this affect iron absorption into the body? (3 points) ‘ t Ha? Q: '\ 3 SacrekA lO \1 LIT PM We" (00 0k! 3 .\rb|"\.'3‘~0‘rt§s .‘ WPLC‘AZM b\\n&$ (I'D 4m garotmm WW ,- twgraedsr ’exprwed M _ du cow/well “MFR/WOCA1JCQ’ZSf Boning) twig/5:9 " Harm r at g 5 M m ‘0 . e (firs va 17> akgwioLeL L. Describe the role of the hormone secretin’ in the regulation of pancreatic secretion. Your answer should address the following: 0 Where are the endocrine cells that release secretin? What is the stimulus that triggers secretin release? 0 0 What cells in the pancreas are the targets of secretin? 0 What do these cells secrete? (4 points) Same/’9" 34W” _, ET‘c‘owlomCLtef 03 >\ M. Describe how a hepatocyte can eliminate cholesterol fiom the body. How does the drug ezetimibe work to increase this method of eliminating cholesterol? (3 points gm {—5 am email/ta (malaria/M £49m “$9 U1 l'l’ xix/$0 lofle‘ . r, ~m H l (Lbs-J‘bfiew are E 12, mm be Page 2 of 12 continue on next page Multiple Choice Key: 1 E 46 B 2D 47C 3E 48D 40 49A 58 50E 6A 518 7B 52E 8D 53A 9A 54A 10C 558 11A 560 128 57A 13A 58A 148 59D 158 60C 16A 17B 18C 19D 200 21 B 22C 238 24D 258 26A 27A 28C 290 30E 31 C 32D 33E 34E 358 368 37D 38D 39A 40C 41 E 42E 438 44C 45D STARTING NOW, PLACE ALL ANSWERS ON THE MARK-SENSE FORM MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the BEST answer. (2 points each) 1. Which of the following is an exocrine secretion of the pancreas? a. insulin b. secretin 0. HCl (1. pepsin e. bicarbonate ions (HCO3') 2. The serous membrane that surrounds the digestive organs is called the a. muscularis externa b. greater omentum c. mesentery d. peritoneum e. mucosa 3. Which of the following is NOT found in the submucosa? a. loose connective tissue b. blood vessels 0. neurons (1. mucous glands e. enterocytes 4. Which of the following is a function of mucus? a. activates pepsino gen _ b. aids in the digestion of glycoproteins c. buffers acid d. provides lubrication in the peritoneal cavity e. begins the digestion of carbohydrates 5. What is true about the majority of people who are lactose intolerant? a. they have a mutation in the gene that codes for lactase b. they have lactase activity at birth, but it declines after childhood 0. they have an autoimmune response that is triggered by exposure to lactose (1. they make IgE antibodies that trigger an allergic reaction to lactose 6. This protein allows glucose to move across the basolateral membrane of the enterocyte. a. glucose transporter b. ferroportin c. CFTR d. Na+-glucose co-transporter e. DMT-l Page 3 of 12 continue on next page 7. Which of the following is activated when a peptide is cleaved in the lumen of the duodenum? a. enterokinase b. trypsinogen c. bile salt (1. colipase e. pepsinogen 8. This binds to the digestive enzyme lipase at the surface of an emulsion droplet. a. bile salt b. phospholipids c. apolipoprotein d. colipase e. monoglyceride 9. Bile salts are present in all of the following EXCEPT a. chylomicrons b. micelles c. emulsion droplets d. lumen of bile canaliculus e. lumen of hepatic portal vein 10. Intrinsic factor is secreted by a. duodenal crypt cells b. chief cells c. parietal cells d. pancreatic acinar cells e. G cells 11. The movement of iron across the apical plasma membrane of the enterocyte involves a. DMT-l b. receptor-mediated endocytosis c. ferritin d. ferroportin e. HFE 12. Which of the following occurs in the disorder hemochromatosis? anemia due to inadequate iron absorption iron overload due to unregulated iron absorption defect in iron excretion iron overload due to red blood cell breakdown anemia due to insufficient red blood cell production .0 999‘s» 13. The basic electrical rhythm in gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscle is due to the activity of specialized smooth muscle cells neurons in the myenteric plexus neurons in the submucous plexus parasympathetic inputs to the GI tract sympathetic inputs to the GI tract 99.037!” Page 4 of 12 continue on next page 14. Which of the following occurs as a result of an excitatory input to G1 smooth muscle? a. increase in the frequency of contractions b. increase in the strength of contractions c. initiation of the basic electrical rhythm d. relaxation of a sphincter 15. Distension of the stomach triggers acid secretion via a neural reflex. This is an example of cephalic phase regulation gastric phase regulation intestinal phase regulation the gastroileal reflex both b and d are correct 9999‘.” 16. Which of the following involves an abnormal immune response that damages the mucosa of the small intestine? a. celiac disease b. lactose intolerance c. ulcerative colitis d. intestinal metaplasia e. duodenal ulcer 17. A doctor performs a biopsy on a patient with gastroesphageal reflux disorder, and discovers Barrett’s esophagus. What type of cell (not normally present) is present in the mucosa? a. stratified squamous cell b. goblet cell c. chief cell (1. parietal cell 18. During ingestion of food, this is triggered so that the stomach volume can increase Without a large increase in pressure. (CHOOSE BEST) a. peristalsis b. delayed stomach emptying c. receptive relaxation (1. formation of rugae e. basic electrical rhythm 19. Secretion of this regulatory molecule occurs in response to an increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions in the lumen of the stomach. a. gastrin b. CCK c. histamine d. somatostatin e. secretin Page 5 of 12 continue on next page 20. G cells that secrete gastrin are primarily found in the a. duodenal epithelium b. body of the stomach c. pylorus of the stomach d. myenteric plexus e. submucous plexus 21. Acid hypersecretion and duodenal ulcer develop when there is a. body gastritis b. pyloric gastritis c. somatostatin hypersecretion d. delayed stomach emptying 22. Zollinger—Elinson syndrome occurs when there is a tumor that secretes gastrin in an unregulated manner. Based on what you know about gastrin’s effects, what sort of change in the stomach would be consistent with gastrin hypersecretion? a. decreased histamine secretion b. hypochlorhydria c. proliferation of parietal cells d. atrophy of gastric glands 23. During peristalsis _ a. circular muscle contracts in the receiving segment b. longitudinal muscle contracts in the receiving segment c. longitudinal muscle relaxes in the receiving segment d. circular muscle relaxes in the propulsive segment 24. Bile will enter the gallbladder during the digestive period in response to secretin secretion when the Sphincter of Oddi is relaxed when the Sphincter of Oddi is contracted in response to CCK secretion EDP-‘97?” 25. Which of the following is TRUE about bile salts? a. 95% of bile salts released into the duodenum end up in the feces b. bile salts are actively reabsorbed in the terminal ileum c. the bile salt pool in the gallbladder is sufficient to complete digestion of the fat in a typical meal (1. increased plasma concentration of bile salts inhibits bile salt secretion into the canaliculus 26. This helps to keep cholesterol in solution in the bjl_e. a. bile salts b. bilirubin c. apolipoproteins d. colipase e. bicarbonate ions (HCOg') Page 6 of 12 continue on next page 27. Which of the following would occur as a result of a gallstone lodged in and blocking flow from the common bile duct, as shown in Figure 1? failure to digest fat Figure 1 failure to digest protein ' ' failure to digest carbohydrate acute pancreatitis all of the above would occur $99.09*.” 28. Which of the following is associated with diarrhea that occurs as a result of antibiotic therapy? a. infection with H. pylori b. infection with Vibrio cholerae (bacterium that causes cholera) c. infection with Clostridium difi‘z‘cile d. ulcerative colitis e. gluten enteropathy 29. Which of the following is true about the migrating motility complex? a. stimulated by gastrin b. turned on with the gastroileal reflex c. stimulated by motilin d. inhibited by motilin 6. occurs within two hours of a meal 30. Which of the following is true about a mass movement? stimulated by motilin inhibited by gastrocolic reflex occurs at a frequency of l per 30 minutes main function is to clear out the contents of the small intestine functions to deposit feces in rectum and stimulate urge to defecate 99.05793 31. Which type of neuron forms a synapse with the muscle cells of the internal anal sphincter? somatic efferent neuron parasympathetic preganglionic neuron neuron in the myenten'c plexus upper motor neuron sympathetic preganglionic neuron 99‘ng 32. Which of the following occurs as part of the gastrocolic reflex? (CHOOSE BEST) migrating motility complex haustrations relaxation of the external anal sphincter mass movement delayed stomach emptying {DP-HOST?” Page 7 of 12 continue on next page 33. A defect in which of the following proteins causes the disorder familial hypercholesterolemia? a. apolipoprotein associated with HDL b. lipoprotein lipase c. HMG-CoA reductase d. intestinal cholesterol transport protein e. LDL receptor 34. A person has an increased risk of atherosclerosis if he has lo_w levels of a. LDL ' b. VLDL c. chylomicrons d. HMG—CoA reductase e. HDL 35. Which of the following occurs when there is increased cholesterol in a hepatocyte? a. LDL receptors increase b. HMG—CoA activity decreases c. HMG—CoA activity increases 36. Which of the following is true about excitation—contraction coupling in skeletal muscle? calcium enters the cell through voltage— gated ion channels in the plasma membrane the action potential is conducted to the interior of the muscle fiber via the T—tubules CaH-calmodulin activates myosin light chain kinase SR Ca++ channels are opened by 1P3 9-? 9‘2» 37. The powerstroke refers to the conformational change that occurs when Ca++ binds to troponin when ATP is hydrolyzed after the myosin head detaches from the thin filament after the myosin head binds strongly to the thin filament after the myosin head binds to ATP 99.0.69» 38. This protein functions in the relaxation of both smooth muscle and skeletal muscle. a. SR Ca++ channel b. myosin light chain phosphatase c. myosin light chain kinase (1. CaH-ATPase e. acetylcholinesterase 39. A neuron innervating a muscle cell releases neurotransmitter that hyperpolarizes the muscle cell. This type of regulation occurs in a. smooth muscle b. skeletal muscle 0. both smooth and skeletal muscle (1. neither smooth nor skeletal muscle Page 8 of 12 continue on next page 40. Hypertonia (abnormally high muscle tone) occurs during cataplexy as a symptom of Huntington’s disease due to increased activity of the stretch reflex due to decreased activity of the stretch reflex due to decreased activity of the withdrawal reflex 9999‘!” 41. The innervation ratio refers to the number of synapses on a skeletal muscle fiber the number of motor neurons per muscle fiber the order of recruitment of motor units the number of motor units in a muscle the number of muscle fibers in a motor unit 99.0.5”? 42. Which of the following characteristics are typical of a slow oxidative muscle fiber? large diameter rich in myoglobin rich capillary supply choices a, b and c are all correct only b and c are correct EDP-PS7?” 43. Which of the following occurs as a direct consequence of action potentials in the gamma motor neurons? (CHOOSE BEST) contraction of extrafusal fibers contraction of intrafusal fibers activation of the muscle spindle afferent inhibition of the muscle spindle afferent relaxation of the intrafusal fibers 9999‘.” 44. An individual experiences weakness and loss of dexterity in the limbs on the left side of the body. This is consistent with spinal cord damage to the a. right lateral corticospinal tract b. right anterior corticospinal tract c. left lateral corticospinal tract (1. left anterior corticospinal tract 45. Which of the following is a characteristic of REM sleep? a. lack of skeletal muscle tone b. desynchronized EEG activity 0. rapid eye movements (1. all of the above 46. Narcolepsy is thought to involve the loss of a group of neurons that release this neurotransmitter. a. serotonin b. orexin c. histamine d. norepinephrine e. GABA Page 9 of 12 continue on next page 47. Difficulty in understanding instructions occurs in (CHOOSE BEST) a. Wernicke’s aphasia b. global aphasia 0. both global and Wernicke’s aphasia d. Broca’s aphasia e. conduction aphasia 48. Which of the following have equilibrium potentials more negative than the threshold for an action potential? (choose best) a. Na+, Ca++ b. Ca++,K+ 0. Cl", Ca"+ d. K, or e. C1',Ca"+,K+ 49. Which one of the following is FALSE about the ion channels responsible for the action potential? a. Above the threshold, the opening of some K+ channels leads to a positive feedback situation in which ever more K+ channels open. K+ channels are opened by depolarization. KJr channels are closed by repolarization. Na+ channels open due to depolarization. Na+ channels close both due to repolarization and due to inactivation. 99.0.6 50. In the release of neurotransmitter, which one of the following factors gates the Ca++ ion channels in the membrane of the presynaptic terminal? a. trimeric G protein b. phosphorylation c. cyclic AMP d. lidocaine e. voltage 51. Which one of the following neurons would you think would be most likely to release a neurotransmitter that activates a 7 transmembrane domain receptor in the postsynaptic membrane? afferent neuron in leg sensing proprioception neuron in brainstem that increases alertness as a person wakes up afferent neuron in the leg sensing fine touch ganglion cell in retina efferent neuron innervating extraocular muscle in the eye 9999‘.» Page 10 of 12 continue on next page 52. Which one Of the following is different at an inhibitogy smapse in comparison to an excitatory synapse? (choose best) ++ 1 effect of Ca on neurotransmitter release postsynaptic receptors are “slow” rather than “fast” voltage gated ion channels in presynaptic membrane removal of neurotransmitter from synaptic cleft equilibrium potential of ions moving through postsynaptie ion channels 99.057?” 53. Which one of the following best explains why the symptoms in peripheral neuropathy caused by diabetes mellitus tend to have a “glove and stocking” distribution? because longest axons are affected first because it results fiom demyelination because it is an example of phantom limb pain because it is an example of referred pain because substance P is released 9999‘?» 54. Various stimuli are applied to the toe of a patient with the rith half of the spinal cord severed in the neck. Which one of the following describes the results of these tests? patient does feel pain in the right toe, but does NOT feel fine touch patient does NOT feel pain but does feel fine touch in the right toe patient does NOT feel pain and does NOT feel fine touch in the right toe patient feels BOTH pain and fine touch in the right toe 9*.“ 579° 55. Which one of the following does NOT activate a receptor for an opioid peptide? a. dynorphin b. substance P c. enkephalin d. endorphin e. morphine 56. What type of ligand gated ion channel only opens following prolonged release of glutamate? a. “morphine receptor” b. receptor blocked by naloxone c. NMDA d. B adrenergic receptor e. 7 transmembrane domain receptor 57. Which one of the following could be the neurotransmitter in Figure 2? inhibitory neurotransmitter a. (mechanorecentor) b. glutamate ‘ c. morphine d. naloxone e. substance P Figure 2 Page 11 of 12 continue on next page 58. Which one of the following happens as the ciliary muscle contracts? a. lens becomes more curved b. lens becomes less curved c. pupil constricts d. pupil dilates e. eyelid blinks 59. To which one of the following are hair cells attached in the cochlea? a. crista b. cupula c. tectorial membrane d. basilar membrane e. otolithic membrane 60. In benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, which one of the following is causing the problem? (as presented in class) oval Window Eustachian tube otoconia cupula basilar membrane 9999‘?” PLACE MARK-SENSE FORM INSIDE EXAM AND TURN THEM IN TOGETHER. ENJOY YOUR SPRING BREAK! Page 12 of12 ...
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Conj402_final_2006_answers (Digestion, Nutrition, Muscle, Neuro)

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