conj402_final_2008_answers

conj402_final_2008_answers - mw-va-w CONJOINT 402 LAB TIME...

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Unformatted text preview: mw-va-w CONJOINT 402 LAB TIME \1 FINAL EXAM NAME March 19th, 2008 7 Following directions on the mark-sense form, write your name, student number and major (PP=Pharmacy; SS=Specia1 Permission) in the blanks and fill in the bubbles. On the blanks above, write your lab section and name. In addition, write your name on the back of this exam. When finished with the test, place the mark-sense form inside the exam form and turn in the exam and mark-sensefarm together. '- FILL-IN THE BLANKS: Write your answers on this page. (2 points each) A. Name the hormone that stimulates contraction of the smooth muscle of the gallbladder. Cc K (Catawba-my.) B. The serous membrane that surrounds the digestive organs and lines the abdominal cavity is called the C. Give the specific name for the inactive precursor of the peptidase secreted by the chief cells of the stomach. D. Name the neurotransmitter that is released by enteric neurons that stimulate acid secretion. eer‘rl'ome u m eeesmogeo arewchohme (Mk) tE. What is the term used for hormones that are released by endocrine cells of the small intestine, which feed back to inhibit activity in the stomach? an terorcMéS" F. Name the enzyr_ne that is inhibited by statin drugs. H M G C A re (LN, +0L3 e .. O i , G. Name the basolateral iron transporter that is down-regulated by the hormone hepcidin. aper‘r‘o P o r Vi H. What kind of neuron forms a synapse with the muscle cells . , Q +_ of the external anal sphincter? Sow/103'“ C 9’ get"er I. Name the regulatory molecule involved in triggering nausea and vomiting that is released in response to irritants or toxins in . . the Gi tract. SQF‘D'l’OV/ll fl J. Name a characteristic feature one would see in a biopsy of the 30 tom}; cell 5 v‘ u“) mucosa from someone with Barrett’s esophagus. ) g. SMQ‘W wUMW (’flml” Page 1 of13 SHORT ANSWER Write your answers on this page. K. The pancreas secretes bicarbonate and digestive enzymes. Which two cell types in the pancreas are responsible for each of these two secretions? Describe how secretion is regulated for each of these two cell types. (4 points) Dud— C9,“; 90. (til-i lo .‘ CtJlQQM‘iC M (3/0,?wa a)“ gag/role (JJElghi/a tat/1241 was , aw hEm (LC/1' ‘clic claim/J. Whirl/“ii 90515“ V303 3Q; ' W Slimul (Ml—E QAAAL'O ufl‘wa Lie/US M ‘W Qf' ’3 ‘U W - film/9Q. swrt‘lm, wkrch Ilurvts em JcaC/i’ 02/“ S'flxueehév, / ‘ ‘ A. ._ {a M l a‘i‘fi am't/ serve if 5;: “‘36:; M ml with Wanna ob S “a ’_ f ’ spare-4s 1% \0 www WLLS I L. Zollinger—Ellison synd me occurs when there is a tumor that hypersecretes the hormone gastrin. Based on what you know about regulation in the stomach, what would be the effect of gastrin hypersecretion? What is the effect in the duodenum? . 7 sat a l‘ 0-41 ’ (3points) Gustav gym/10mg; thmmm ‘ r Sled/h «Jo/View (vi/“5'. WWW also Shwotmfi’a [QCL :2“; +19 rLlCH’L Edwin/tafwkrch fin‘wuuules 0am? . WTPfirfxe/rfihm ’ woulJ ‘ wsflg ) Wt}le haui’ralamfl Womigmx; to Cwm UOr, clean f M. Cells in the body obtain cholesterol that is synthesized by the liver and packaged in lipoproteins. What key protein is necessary for cells to take up this cholesterol from the circulation? What is the name of the disease in which this protein is defective? (3 points) LDL Wheeler‘s m4 necessbm £01" cells i’u Ila-tie rel-6) choleslrewi We $86491)th macho: c0 I Q/vxcflxzu‘lgCSiS. LSDL r‘icJLp‘lV-WS m Cthecaxva m «@L “Q Page 2 of 13 Multigle Choice Key (OOJNO'JO'I-lewN-A mNNNMNNNNNN—x—k—xA—k—x—xn—x—L—L OCDODNGUI-wa—‘OCOGNCDU‘I-wa—LO mmU>rn03>Damowwo>>0w00mw0mwmomoo 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 4o 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 03>>UUOmOUJUJUJFTIUJUEDOJ>>UOCUUJ>>U>>UFHUJ MULTIPLE CHOICE: l. STARTING NOW, PLACE ALL ANSWERS ON THE MARK-SENSE FORM Choose the BEST answer. (2 points each) All of the following are continuous with the external environment, EXCEPT a. pancreatic duct b. anal canal c. lumen of duodenum d. peritoneal cavity e. gastric gland Which of the following is an exocrine secretion? (CHOOSE BEST) a. cholecystokinin (CCK) b. gastrin c. trypsinogen d. secretin 6. all of the above Which of the following is NOT located in the submucosa layer? neurons mucous glands blood vessels loose connective tissue MALT 9999‘s» These are 1/2-1 cm high folds that increase the surface area in the lumen of the small intestine. microvilli villi plicae circulares intestinal crypts epiploic appendages {DP-'57?!” This protein, which is necessary for glucose absorption, is found in the apical membrane of enterocytes. a. DMT-l b. amylase c. glucose transporter d. CFTR e. Na+/ glucose co-transporter Page 3 of 13 6. Lactose intolerance is caused by: a. a deficiency in a pancreatic enzyme b. a deficiency in a brush border enzyme 0. allergy to milk protein d. allergy to milk sugar 7. Pancreatic zymo gens are normally activated by a. hydrochloric acid (HCl) b. colipase c. pepsin d. trypsin inhibitor e. enterokinase 8. In this disorder, peptides resistant to digestion activate CD4+ helper T-ceils to mount an inappropriate immune response. lactose intolerance passive immunity hemochromatosis celiac disease secretory diarrhea FOP-.057.” 9. The digestive enzyme lipase (CHOOSE BEST) is secreted by chief cells in the stomach is associated with emulsion droplets is associated with micelles both “a” and “b” are true both “b” and “c” are true EDP-.097?” 10. Bile salts are found in (CHOOSE BEST) a. micelles b. bile canaliculus c. lumen of jejunum d. hepatic portal vein e. all of the above 11. Colipase is a. secreted by enterocytes b. secreted by hepatocytes c. a phospholipid d. an amphipathic protein e. a zymogen Page 4 of 13 12. Pernicious anemia is associated with which of the following? hemochromatosis iron deficiency autoimmune destruction of parietal cells celiac disease increased hepcidin secretion {DP-20.7!” 13. Which of the following occurs in a person with hereditary hemochromatosis (mutation in HFE)? ' hypersecretion of hepcidin deficient secretion of hepcidin decreased iron bound to transferrin tissue damage limited to the proximal duodenum reduced expression of ferroportin FDP-‘PP‘?’ 14. Which of the following is a treatment for hemochromatosis? iron supplement vitamin B12 injection remove gluten from the diet phlebotomy blood transfusion EDP-'ng 1.5. A duodenal biopsy shows flattened mucosa with increased numbers of lymphocytes. This is observed in which of the following disorders? a. celiac disease b. body gastritis c. hemochromatosis d. intestinal metaplasia e. lactose intolerance 16. What is the source of the Basic Electrical Rhflhm (slow waves)? spontaneous electrical activity in specialized smooth muscle cells parasympathetic input via the vagus nerve neurons in the myenteric plexus neurons in the submucous plexus 9.09%» 17. An inhibitogg input to smooth muscle in the stomach causes an increase in the rate of muscle contractions a decrease in the rate of muscle contractions a decrease in the strength of muscle contractions a decrease in both the strength and the rate of muscle contractions 53-9 .7?” Page 5 of 13 18. According to what was said in lecture, where would you find cells that release the hormone secretin? (CHOOSE BEST) a. stomach epithelium b. duodenal epithelium 0. cells lining the pancreatic ducts d. cells lining the bile ducts c. all of the above 19. Respiration is inhibited during a. the oral phase of swallowing b. the pharyngeal phase of swallowing c. the esophageal phase of swallowing d. all three phases of swallowing 20. Which of the following occurs if a bolus of food does not reach the stomach following a swallow? (CHOOSE BEST) elevation of the larynx primary peristalsis in the esophagus secondary peristalsis in the esophagus emesis reflexive initiation of a second swallow 99.01793 21. Which of the following would increase the risk for gastroesophageal reflux disorder? body gastritis secondary peristalsis increased tone in the lower esophageal sphincter ulcerative colitis hiatal hernia 9999‘?) 22. Which of the following occurs as part of the gastric phase regulation of acid secretion? (CHOOSE BEST) low pH in the duodenum triggers the release of enterogastrones low pH in the duodenum inhibits acid secretion as part of a neural reflex food in the stomach causes distension that triggers neural reflexes the taste of food in the mouth activates parasympathetic inputs to the stomach e. all of the above 9.0 9‘5» 23. An increased concentration of hydrogen ions in the lumen of the stomach will directly stimulate secretion of a. histamine b. gastrin c. GLP-l d. somatostatin e. motilin Page 6 of 13 24. Hypochlorhydria (acid hyposecretion) occurs as a consequence of body gastritis duodenal ulcer gastric phase stimuli celiac disease ulcerative colitis 999.0579” 25. Which of the following is true about peristalsis? circular muscle contracts in the receptive segment longitudinal muscle relaxes in the receptive segment circular muscle contracts in the propulsive segment circular muscle relaxes in the propulsive segment 9.057.” 26. Which of the following promotes stomach emptying? (CHOOSE BEST) a. more action potentials at the peak of slow waves in stomach smooth muscle b. stomach distension c. gastrin d. food in the stomach e. all of the above 27. Which of the following is TRUE about bile salts? a. bile salts are taken up into the circulation in the ileum b. bile salts are poorly soluble in the aqueous environment of the digestive tract c. 95% of the bile salts released into the duodenum ends up in the feces (1. increased plasma concentration of bite salts inhibits bile salt secretion by hepatocytes e. the bile salt pool in the gallbladder is sufficient to complete digestion of all the fat in a typical meal 28. A patient with a gallstone lodged in the common bile duct has grayish feces. The feces are gray because they contain undigested fat do not contain cholesterol do not contain bile salts do not contain bile pigments contain undigested fat, protein, and carbohydrate 9999‘?” 29. According to what was said in lecture, defects in this protein may cause intestinal blockage due to decreased intestinal secretion. a. NEW glucose co—transporter b. CFTR c. trypsino gen (1. enterokinase e. H+/K+-ATPase Page 7 of 13 30. Which of the following switches on segmentation in the small intestine? 9999‘.” mass movement motilin bile salts haustrations cephalic phase stimuli 31. Which of the following best describes the migrating myoelectric complex? a. 9.0 spontaneous membrane potential oscillations that determine rate of contraction segments of peristaltic activity that move down the stomach and small intestine during the interdigestive period sustained contraction of circular muscle that moves feces into the rectum bi-directional movement that mixes chyme in the small intestine basic propulsive movement of the GI tract 32. Which of the following is true about mass movements? (CHOOSE BEST) a. 99.0.6 mass movements occur at a frequency of several times per hour throughout the day mass movements propel feces into the sigmoid colon and rectum gastric phase stimuli can trigger a mass movement both “a” and “b” are true both “b” and “c” are true 33. Which of the following is TRUE about the liver? a. b. C. d. bile is secreted into the sinusoids blood flow is from the center toward the edges of the liver lobule about 80% of the blood flowing into the liver is supplied by the common hepatic artery endothelial cells lining the sinusoids have no basement membrane 34. Which of the following is involved in reverse cholesterol transport? 9999‘s» HDL LDL VLDL chylomicrons lipoprotein lipase 35. Which of the following occurs in hepatocytes as a consequence of treatment with a statin drug? a. b. increased LDL receptors decreased LDL receptors Page 8 ofl3 36. What causes myosin to dissociate from actin in skeletal muscle? a. powerstroke b. hydrolysis of ATP e. Ca++ binding to troponin (1. ATP binding to myosin e. phosphorylation of the myosin head 37. Where would you find voltage— gated Na+ channels in a skeletal muscle fiber? (CHOOSE BEST) a. T—tubule b. sarcoplasmic reticulum c. myofibril (1. both “a” and “b” 38. An electromyo gram is a recording of a action potentials in muscle fibers b. action potentials in somatic efferent neurons c. EPSPS in muscle fibers d. mechanical activity in motor units 39. Which of the following determines the order of motor unit recruitment? a. contraction velocity of muscle fibers b. size of motor neuron in the motor unit 0. rate of fatigue of muscle fibers 40. Which of the following occurs to allow cross-bridge cycling in a smooth muscle cell? a. de-phosphorylation of myosin head by MLCP b. phosphorlyation of myosin head by MLCK c. Ca++ binding to troponin d. decrease in intracellular Ca“ 41. All of the following directly stimulate smooth muscle contraction EXCEPT a. parasympathetic postganglionic neuron b. sympathetic postganglionic neuron c. somatic efferent neuron d. depolarization spread by gap junctions 6. regulatory molecule increasing concentration of 1P3, Page 9 of 13 v w»»»« mwfi.m 42. A doctor uses a reflex hammer to give a sharp rap to the patellar tendon. What happens next? a. Golgi tendon organ afferents cause inhibition of motor neurons to quadriceps b. Golgi tendon organ afferents cause excitation of motor neurons to hamstrings c muscle spindle afferents activate alpha motor neurons to hamstrings (1. muscle spindle afferents activate alpha motor neurons to quadriceps e. co-activation of alpha and gamma motor neurons to hamstrings 43. When does alphamgamma co-activation occur? a. muscle contraction b. muscle relaxation 0. muscle stretch 44. Which of the following is typically observed in a patient that is newly diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease? a. asymmetric presentation (symptoms affecting one limb or one side of the body) b. rapid, uncontrolled dance-like movements c. tremor, but only during voluntary movement of a limb d. low muscle tone 45. Degeneration of this part of the brain causes the symptoms of bradykinesia and resting tremor. a. cerebellum b. thalamus c. substantia nigra d. hypothalamus e. primary motor cortex 46. In which of the following do you observe a “desynchronized” EEG? a. EEG recorded during slow—wave sleep b. EEG recorded during REM sleep 0. alpha rhythm d. delta rhythm 47. This peptide neurotransmitter is released by neurons that make direct excitatory connections to arousal-promoting nuclei. a. histamine b. GABA c-. substance P d. orexin e. serotonin Page 100f13 48. 49. 50. Which one of the following best describes peripheral neuropathy in diabetes mellitus? a. small, unmyelinated axons, with shortest degenerating first b. small, unmyelinated axons, with longest degenerating first c. large, myelinated axons, with myelin damaged most (:1. large, myelinated axons, with axon damaged most Following a stroke, the area without blood flow becomes necrotic. But with time, cells in the region immediately surrounding the necrotic region also begin to die. How was this explained in lecture? (CHOOSE BEST) NMDA ion channels open in the surrounding region excessive Ca++ accumulates in the neurons caspases are activated glutamate released from the dying neurons in the necrotic region diffuses to the surrounding region e. all of the above occur 9.0 .ch Which of the following can have a receptor potential? (CHOOSE BEST) autonomic preganglionic neuron afferent neuron somatic efferent neuron choices “a” and ‘b” are both correct all of the above are correct 999.0“? . Why do voltage gated K+ channels close at the end of an action potential? adaptation return of membrane potential to resting level refraction inactivation reopening of Na+ channels roe-9.69: . In an afferent neuron sensing touch in the fingertip, where would you find mechanically gated ion channels? a. in the axon b in the fingertip only c. in the presynaptic terminal d both choice “a” and choice “b” are correct c all of the above are correct . Refer to the figure at the right. What factor gates the postsynaptic ion channels shown? a. voltage gated b. mechanically gated c. ligand gated d. temperature gated Page 11 of13 u r w~‘-—Wmuwmumww 54. What term refers, in general, to pain due to neuronal abnormalities rather than to a painful stimulus? a. amyotrophic b. neuritis c. nocioceptive d. tonic—clonic e. neuropathic 55. Which one of the following binds to the same receptor as naloxone? a. substance P b. serotonin c. morphine d. glutamate e. GABA FAG \ 56. Refer to the figure at the right. Which one of the following is most likely to be the neurotransmitter released by the small interneuron confined to the dorsal horn? a. substance P b. glutamate to - A anteruéateral c. epinephrine tract d. enkephalin e. norepinephrine 57. Which one of the following can result from blocked flow through the trabecular network? a. Meniere’s disease b. cataracts c. benign paroxysmal positional vertigo d. glaucoma C. J acksonian March 58. In which of the following disorders is a distant object in sharp focus on the retina when the ciliary muscle is relaxed? (CHOOSE BEST) 3. presbyopia b. hyperopia C. myopia d. astigmatism Page 12 of13 59. Which one of the following happens as the ciliary muscle contracts? a. tension in zonular fibers becomes less and lens bulges b. tension in zonular fibers becomes less and lens becomes thinner c. tension in zonular fibers becomes greater and lens bulges d. tension in zonular fibers becomes greater and lens becomes thinner 60. Which one of the following is NOT found in the cochlea? a. basilar membrane b. tectorial membrane c. malleus (1. hair cell PLACE MARK-SENSE FORM INSIDE EXAM AND TURN THEM IN TOGETHER, AND HAVE A NICE SPRING BREAK! Page 13 of13 ...
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conj402_final_2008_answers - mw-va-w CONJOINT 402 LAB TIME...

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