conj402_final_2009_answers

conj402_final_2009_answers - CONJOINT 402 LAB TIME M FINAL...

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Unformatted text preview: CONJOINT 402 LAB TIME M FINAL EXAM NAME é; ’ March 18‘“, 2009 ark-sense form, write your name, ; SS=Special Permission) in the blanks and fi student number and major ll in the bubbles. On the blanks FILL-IN THE BLANKS: Write your answers on this page. (2 points each) A. Name the type of electrical activity that determines the frequency of contractions in the stomach. B. Name the hormone that causes de gradation of ferroportin in enterocytes. C. Name the cell type that synthesizes bile salts. D. Name the lipoprotein that is involved in reverse cholesterol transport. E. Name the digestive enzyme that works optimally at a pH range of 2-3. F. Respiration (breathin g) is inhibited during which phase of swallowing? G. Name the cell type in the pancreas that is stimulated by the hormone secretin. H. What protein is defective in the disorder familial h ercholesterolemia? L— racegf‘gr The network of enteric neurons that is located between the circular and longitudinal muscle layers is called the I. e the stimulus for m k; 5 Wt 0V em“? defecation. Page 1 ofl3 SHORT ANSWER Write your answers on this page. K. Bile salts must be recycled because the amount of bile salts stored in the gallbladder is insufficient to process all the fat in a typical meal. Name the pathway that is used - for bile salt recycling. Describe the sequence by which bile salts in the small intestine are returned to the common bile duct for re-release. (3 points) Th e acid“ w a Uieci rw b(\e gm M'Cfiaii‘k‘} if we Meagantgmefiettey 6F {W'k gait; ' we abforioed m ileum) aw wranng +9 4kg” liver we 44%. hepajbt Eta/i724 Vera, Tmrmgul ‘bgie gait-s w the» ‘PLme simmle bile ’ ’ . t L. A patient infected with H. pylori has gastritis that develops in the pylorus of the stomach. Explain the effects on cells in the stomach, and how this leads to the development of a duodenal ulcer. (4 points) P L! I or PC 2 “5’9”: 1” CS CM 525 Q g ' ‘ « t: M \A Me SW6 dim/hf”? wfl’k {Me , aflm M if; wdecrwéefi ngii‘efit“ “fir-C3731“ :3 @515”: M ft ‘m u Ladies (gym alga gmxmas Mistawiuz Mme t3 ecu C “5 , firewam QvC/ig a '4 ) ' {S a e ; bwa‘saevfiw Sm ) vim C ear-1&5» 7“ “Vii .v m Alwdwum +~ overwwms Wemtiflwa) GWCQ%;_&§fi7—§p UngW M. What is a zymogen? Describe the sequence by which pancreatic zymogens are converted to their active forms. (3 points) ' ()4 A Mm am 7'3 CMA Yfigggscsr ' ~ " r i ' .7 Q 3 mg, ‘EL 0; pm'tem L “j WHM {he We W W vwo ’hfl IMO taA B W ‘W my 3% a g M bile C5, l9 ‘ or . Pafxwmmg 1‘91? a m We W“ W 9% W t, or: We 1‘ y Page 2 of 13 STARTING NOW, PLACE ALL ANSWERS ON THE MARK-SENSE FORM MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the BEST answer. (2 points each) 1. All of the following are continuous with the external environment EXCEPT a. oral cavity (9 peritoneal cavity c. lumen of common bile duct d. lumen of pancreatic duct e. lumen of duodenum 2. Folds in the apical plasma membrane of enterocytes are called a. lacteals b. plicae circulares c. villi @ microvilli e. crypts 3. Which of the following is an exocrine secretion? (CHOOSE BEST) a. secretin b. gastrin c. hepcidin @ amylase e. all of the above are exocrine secretions 4. Which of the following is found in the submucosa? a. peritoneum b. MALT c. muscularis mucosae d. goblet cells enteric neurons 5. Which of the following is true about the digestive enzyme lactase? a. lactase deficiency in adulthood is very rare b. pancreatic acinar cells secrete the inactive precursor of lactase (a lactase is located on the apical plasma membranes of enterocytes d. e. lactase is located on the apical plasma membranes of gastric mucous cells lactase is secreted by the salivary glands Page 3 ofl3 10. Which of the following proteins allows glucose to move across the basolateral membrane of the enterocyte during carbohydrate absorption? (9 glucose transporter b. DMT-l c. ferroportin d. Na+/ glucose co-transporter e. CFTR Which of the following protects the pancreas from inappropriate activation of zymogens? a. alcohol b. colipase c. bicarbonate . bile salts trypsin inhibitor Which of the following depends on the movement of intact protein across the intestinal epithelium by transcytosis? 99.0.6 passive immunity in breast-fed infants absorption of cholesterol activation of pancreatic zymogens regulation of iron absorption in the gastrointestinal tract formation of micelles Which of the following is involved in the immune response underlying celiac disease? a. ® 0. d. stimulation of B cells secreting IgE stimulation of CD4+ T cells secreting cytokines inflammatory response causing endocrine dysregulation in the stomach inflammatory response to commensal bacteria What other disorder below is associated with celiac disease (due to tissue damage in the duodenum)? a. b. c. d. hemochromatosis intestinal metaplasia ulcerative colitis pancreatic insufficiency iron-deficiency anemia 11. Which of the following would typically be found in a micelle? (CHOOSE BEST) 99.53am lipase fatty acid apolipoprotein triacylglycerol colipase Page 4 of 13 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Which of the following drugs blocks cholesterol absorption by enterocytes? a. statin b. aprepitant c. 5-HT3 antagonist @ ezetimibe e. proton pump inhibitor Which of the following cells secretes intrinsic factor (necessary for vitamin B12 absorption)? a. pancreatic acinar cells b. ECL cells c. enterocytes in the terminal ileum @ parietal cells e. chief cells Which of the following occurs in the disorder hemochromatosis? iron—deficiency anemia excessive secretion of hepcidin deficient secretion of hepcidin excessive breakdown of red blood cells defect in iron excretion a. b. (ED d. 6. Which of the following is the iron binding protein in the plasma? a. HFE b. hepcidin c. DMT-l d. ferroportin transferrin Which of the following neurons directly regulates (forms a synapse with) parietal cells in the stomach? a. afferent chemoreceptor enteric efferent neuron c. parasympathetic preganglionic neuron d. sympathetic preganglionic neuron How are slow waves transmitted to smooth muscle cells in the muscularis externa of the astrointestinal tract? gap junction between smooth muscle cells and specialized pacemaker cells synapses from neurons in the myenteric plexus synapses from neurons in the submucosal plexus synapses from CNS neurons in the vagus nerve 9.0.6 Page 5 0f13 18. What is the principal location of G-cells, the cells that secrete gastrin? a. epithelium in the body of the stomach ® epithelium in the pylorus of the stomach c. myenteric plexus of the stomach d. myenteric plexus of the duodenum e. epithelium of the duodenum 19. Name the regulatory molecule that is released in response to toxins or irritants in the gastrointestinal tract. Ondansetron is a drug that works as an antagonist for this regulatory molecule. a. GLP-l b. acetylcholine c. somatostatin d. gastrin serotonin 20. Name the part of the brain that responds to factors in the circulation that trigger emesis. Note: this region of the brain has an incomplete blood—brain barrier. a median eminence b. pineal body . mamillary body area postrema e substantia nigra 21. According to what was said in lecture, which of the following is a specific characteristic of Barrett’s esophagus? simple columnar epithelium b. stratified squamous epithelium c. abnormally thick muscularis externa d. decreased MALT e. increased tone in the lower esophageal sphincter 22. What is the effect of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine on parietal cells? (CHOOSE BEST) ’ a. stimulates secretion of the hormone gastrin b. inhibits enzyme carbonic anhydrase @ stimulates translocation of H+/K+-ATPases to the apical membrane d. inhibits translocation of H+/K+-ATPases to the apical membrane e. stimulates histamine secretion 23. Which of the following is an example of intestinal phase regulation? a. food in the stomach increases the pH and decreases somatostatin secretion b. distension of the stomach triggers acid secretion Via a neural reflex © acidic chyme in the duodenum inhibits acid secretion via a neural reflex (1. food in the mouth activates parasympathetic inputs to the GI tract e. peptides and amino acids stimulate gastrin secretion Page 6 of 13 24. Which of the following drugs inhibits acid secretion? a. 5-HT3 antagonist b. HMG CoA-reductase inhibitor @ histamine antagonist d. somatostatin antagonist e. NSAID (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) 25. Which of the following is associated with gastric ulcer? a. hypersecretion of gastrin b. pyloric gastritis ® hypochlorhydria (hyposecretion of acid) (1. decreased risk of stomach cancer e. hypersecretion of acid 26. Which of the following hormones has its secretion stimulated by H+ ions in the duodenum? a. gastrin b. CCK (cholecystokinin) I c. GLP-l @ secretin e. hepcidin 27. Which of the following is an entero gastrone? a. hepcidin b. gastrin © CCK (cholecystokinin) d. acetylcholine e. histamine 28. Which of the following inhibits stomach emptying? (CHOOSE BEST) a. gastrin ® fats in the duodenum c. fats in the stomach d. both B and C 29. A gallstone is lodged in the common bile duct, causing steatorrhea (fat in the stool). The inability to digest and absorb fats results from a lack of a. cholesterol b. bicarbonate c. lipase d. bile pigments bile salts Page 7 of 13 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. According to what was said in lecture, for which of the following disorders might there be pancreatic insufficiency because of a defect in pancreatic secretion? a. duodenal ulcer b. celiac disease ® cystic fibrosis (1. Crohn’s disease e. diabetes mellitus Which of the following best describes ulcerative colitis? an inappropriate immune response to bacteria normally found in the large intestine b. inflammation in the large intestine due to infectiOn with Clostridium difficile c inflammation due to infection with Helicobacter pylori d. an inappropriate immune response to peptides found in gluten e. autoimmune destruction of the cells that secrete intrinsic factor This is the type of motility that occurs in the small intestine during the digestive period. peristalsis migrating myoelectric complex mass movement segmentation receptive relaxation a. b. c. @ e. Enteric neurons in the myenteric plexus directly stimulate contraction in the internal anal sphincter b. external anal sphincter 0. both the internal and the external anal sphincters Which of the following lipoproteins delivers triacylglycerol to cells? (CHOOSE BEST) both VLDL and chylomicrons b. both LDL and HDL c. only LDL d. only chylomicrons , e. only VLDL In the treatment of dyslipidemia, which of the following drugs is the most effective at increasing levels of HDL? niacin o . ezetimibe c fibrate d. statin e omeprazole Page 8 of 13 36. The figure shows a cross-bridge in the rigor configuration, when the myosin head is tightly bound to actin. Which of the following is the very ne_xt step in cross-bridge cycling? Ca++ binds to troponin ATP binds to myosin ATP hydrolysis powerstroke ATP binds to actin actin filament 37. In a resting skeletal muscle, myosin binding sites on the thin filament are blocked by actin titin tropomyosin troponin 1P3 38. In a smooth muscle cell, what occurs to cause the increase in Ca“ that regulates contraction? ' a. b. Cc) d. e. MLCK stimulates the Ca++-ATPase the T-tubule voltage sensor changes conformation to open a sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca++ channel depolarization opens voltage-gated Ca++ channels in the plasma membrane depolarization opens voltage-gated Ca++ channels in the SR membrane MLCK phosphorylates the myosin head 39. Fast glycolytic muscle fibers have a fast contraction velocity because they have .099er a myosin that hydrolyzes ATP at a faster rate a more rapid mode of ATP generation a faster rate of action potential conduction a high concentration of intracellular Ca++ more myofibrils 40. An electromyogram is a recording of a. b. @ e. mechanical activity in muscle fibers EPSPs in muscle fibers action potentials in muscle fibers action potentials in somatic efferent neurons EPSP’s in somatic efferent neurons Page 9 of 13 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. All of the following stimulate contraction of smooth muscle EXCEPT enteric neuron regulatory molecule that increases concentration of 1P3 depolarization spread by gap junctions sympathetic postganglionic neuron somatic efferent neuron 09.0 9‘5» According to what was said in lecture, the stretch reflex is an important component of a. withdrawal from a painful stimulus b. orienting behaviors @ muscle tone d. muscle movement during REM sleep During muscle contraction, muscle spindle sensitivity is maintained through activation of the a. alpha motor neuron gamma motor neuron c. Golgi tendon organ Which of the following is true about the primary motor cortex? a. the left primary motor cortex controls movements in the left arm I it contains neurons that synapse directly onto somatic efferent neurons in the spinal cord c. it has very few connections with neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex (1. it is located in the postcentral gyrus This part of the motor control system coordinates movements by comparing the motor plan of the intended movement with sensory feedback about the movement. a. primary motor cortex b. basal ganglia c. spinal cord @ cerebellum e. thalamus All of the following are neurotransmitters released by arousal promoting nuclei EXCEPT a. norepinephrine b. dopamine c. serotonin GABA e. histamine Page 10 of13 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. Drugs that increase the level of norepinephrine are used to treat a. schizophrenia b. insomnia c. Parkinson’s disease d. cerebellar disorders excessive daytime sleepiness Which one of the following is associated with beta—amyloid deposits in the brain? a. Huntington’s disease CB) Alzheimer’s disease 0. Parkinson’s disease d. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) e. multiple sclerosis A 30 year old woman begins to show some optic symptoms such as diplopia. And a neurological test strongly suggests optic neuritis. An MRI confirms the diagnosis. Which one of the following is likely the disorder? a. Alzheimer’s disease b. Huntington’s disease 0. Parkinson’s disease ® multiple sclerosis e. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) Suppose that the cell body of a neuron is depolarized to minus 50 mV due to synaptic activity. Which one of the following would occur as an ion channel for Ca++ opens? (CHOOSE BEST) a. The concentration gradient causes Ca++ to flow into the cell. b. The electrical potential difference causes Ca++ to flow into the cell. © BOTH choice “a” and choice “b” are correct. d. NONE of the above is true. Which one of the following is responsible for causing the K+ voltage gated ion channels to 910$ during an action potential? a. inactivation b. depolarization © repolarization Refer to the figure to the right. What factor gates the Ca++ ion channels shown? intracellular ligand extracellular ligand mechanical voltage temperature a. b. c. e. Page 11 of13 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. Which of the following have equilibrium potentials more negative than the threshold for an action potential? (choose best) a. Na+, Ca++ b. Ca”, K+ 0. Cl", Ca++ d. Cl', Ca“, K“ K+, C1" Which one of the following best explains why the symptoms in peripheral neuropathy caused by diabetes mellitus tend to have a “glove and stocking” distribution? a. because it results from demyelination because it is an example of phantom limb pain because it is an example of referred pain because substance P is released. because longest axons are affected first b. c. (1. Which one of the following accurately refers to the NMDA receptor? a. 7 transmembrane domain protein @ ion channel opens only following a period of prolonged depolarization c. site of action of fluoxetine d. opened by GABA e. opened by adenosine In what region of the brain is the periagueductal gray? a. cerebrum b. medulla c. dorsal horns Q midbrain e. cerebellum In which of the following circumstances would you expect phantom limb pain? (CHOOSE BEST) @ amputation demyelination diabetes mellitus Alzheimer’s disease multiple sclerosis 0999‘ Which one of the following occurs in a rod when light is absorbed by rhodopsin in the eye? (CHOOSE BEST) ligand gated NaJr channels open more cyclic GMP is formed the rod becomes hyperpolarized more glutamate is released by the rod ALL of the above occur a. b. Q d. e. Page 12 of 13 59. In which one of the following disorders, would an adrenergic drug be given in order to open the trabecular meshwork in the eye? a. myopia glaucoma c. macular degeneration d. astigmatism e. benign paroxysmal postural vertigo 60. In which one of the following is the eye too long relative to the curvature of the COFea? a. myopia hyperopia c. astigmatism d. presbyopia e glaucoma PLACE MARK-SENSE FORM INSIDE EXAM, TURN THEM IN TOGETHER, and have a nice spring break! Page 13 of13 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/03/2012 for the course CONJ 402 taught by Professor Thomaslinder during the Fall '10 term at University of Washington.

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conj402_final_2009_answers - CONJOINT 402 LAB TIME M FINAL...

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