conj402_final_2010 - CONJOINT 402 , LAB TIME FINAL EXAM...

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Unformatted text preview: CONJOINT 402 , LAB TIME FINAL EXAM NAME March 17‘“, 2010 Following directions on the mark-sense form, write your name, student number and major (PP=Pharmacy; SS=Special Permission) in the blanks and fill in the bubbles. On the blanks above, write your lab section and name. In addition, write your name on the back of this exam. When finished with the test, place the mark—sense form inside the exam form and turn in the exam and mark-senseform together. FILL-IN THE BLANKS: Write your answers on this page. (2 points each) A. Name the lipoproteins that are produced by enterocytes, and contain absorbed triacylglycerol, fat-soluble Vitamins, and cholesterol. B. Name the cell in the stomach that is responsible for secreting pepsinogen. C. Name the substance that is secreted by the pancreatic duct cells. D. Name the disorder in which the normal mucosa of the esophagus is replaced with a mucosa that resembles that of the small intestine. E. Name the neurotransmitter/paracrine whose receptor is blocked by the antiemetic drug ondansetron. F. Name the mechanism whereby bile salts are recycled during a meal. ' G. Name the iron binding protein that it found in the plasma. The degree of saturation of this protein is often used to determine the amount of iron in the body. H. Name the membrane protein that is important for fluid secretion in the pancreas and small intestine. I. Name the term that means inflammation in the stomach. I. What is the principal effect of the dyslipidemia drug niacin? [ Page 1 of13 SHORT ANSWER Write your answers on this page. K. What causes hepcidin secretion to increase? Describe the molecular effect of hepcidin on enterocytes. (3 points) ' L. During the gastric phase, food in the stomach greatly stimulates acid secretion because it acts as a buffer. What is a buffer? Describe how food acting as a buffer promotes acid secretion through its effects on regulatory molecules in the stomach. (4 points) M. Familial hypercholesterolemia is a disorder in which individuals develop severe atherosclerosis and have heart attacks at a young age. What protein is defective in this disorder, and what are the consequences for blood lipid levels? (3 points) Page 2 of 13 STARTING NOW, PLACE ALL ANSWERS ON THE MARK—SENSE F ORM MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the BEST answer. (2 points each) 1. Which of the following spaces is continuous with the external environment? (choose best) lumen of hepatic bile duct peritoneal cavity liver sinusoid lamina propria lumen of hepatic portal vein 0999‘s» 2. Which of the following substances is targeted for excretion via the digestive tract? a. iron b. glucose c. triacyl glycerol d. cholesterol e. gastrin 3. Which of the following is an exocrine secretion of the pancreas? a. CCK (cholecystokinin) b. secretin - c. insulin d. pepsinogen e. bicarbonate ions (HCOg') 4. Intrinsic factor, which is secreted by parietal cells, is necessary for activation of pepsino gen absorption of vitamin B12 absorption of iron digestion of proteins production of mucus in the stomach 09.0.02” 5. Which of the following is responsible for the activation of trypsinogen? a. low pH b. brush border enzyme 0. pancreatic amylase d. trypsin inhibitor e. high pH Page 3 of 13 6. Which of the following is true for the majority of individuals who are lactose intolerant? a. they have a mutation in the gene that codes for pancreatic amylase b. they have an autoimmune response to lactose that is mediated by CD4+ T cells c they develop a deficiency in a brush border enzyme d. they have an allergy to milk proteins e. they arevanemic 7. Which of the following depends on the movement of intact protein across the intestinal epithelium via transcytosis? absorption of cholesterol formation of micelles secretion of IgA to the intestinal lumen secretion of hormone gastrin activation of pancreatic zymogens 0999‘s» 8. This protein moves glucose across the apical membrane of the enterocyte. glucose transporter ferroportin DMT—l Na+/K+-ATPase Na+/ glucose cotransporter 9999‘s» 9. The figure shows gluten peptides stimulating the immune response in celiac disease. In which part of the digestive tract does this occur? (choose best) a. apical surface of enterocytes . ' b. lamina propria ‘ ' d“- 9'Ute” peptides c. . submucosa 10. Bile salts are present in all of the following EXCEPT a. hepatic portal vein b. hepatic bile duct c. chylomicrons d. micelles e. emulsion droplets Page 4 of 13 11. 12. 13. 14} 15. 16. Which of the following helps deliver chylomicrons to the general circulation? a. lacteals b. bile salts c. colipase d. LDL receptor e. transcytosis Which of the following is true for the disorder hereditary hemochromatosis caused by mutation in the protein _H_F_E_? there is deficient absorption of iron anemia is caused by red blood cell breakdown there is deficient secretion of hepcidin it is treated with blood transfusions anemia is caused by excessive secretion of hepcidin {DP—.097?” A duodenal biopsy showing flattened mucosa is used to diagnose which of the following disorders? H. pylori infection in the pylorus pernicious anemia hemochromatosis lactose intolerance celiac disease sup-9.6;» How are slow waves in the muscularis externa generated? a. spontaneous electrical activity in specialized smooth muscle cells b. rhythmic excitatory input from efferent neurons in the myenteric plexus c. rhythmic excitatory input from parasympathetic neurons travelling in the vagus nerve In the stomach, stronger contractions of the smooth muscle are caused by a. the hormone-CCK . b. an increase in the number of action potentials at the peak of the slow wave . c. an increase in the frequency of the basic electrical rhythm What is the principal location of the endocrine cells that release the hormone secretin? I submucous plexus epithelium in the body of the stomach epithelium in the pylorus of the stomach epithelium of the duodenum myenteric plexus 99.0.69 Page 5 of 13 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. Suppose following a swallow, some food remains in the esophagus. What occurs next? a. b. C. d. secondary peristalsis propels food to stomach _ receptive relaxation of lower esophagus combined with gravity deliver food to stomach distension of esophagus triggers reflux of gastric juice so digestion can begin distension of esophagus triggers vomiting Aprepitant is a substance P antagonist. Which gastrointestinal disorder is this drug V used to treat? 0999‘s» gastroesophageal reflux disease inflammatory bowel disease peptic ulcer chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting pancreatitis Which of the following stimulates translocation of H+/K+-ATPases to the apical membrane of parietal cells? 99.0.69 increased H+ ions in the lumen of the stomach increased H+ ions in the lumen of the duodenum somatostatin serotonin histamine Which of the following triggers increased secretion of somatostatin? (choose best) 09.0575» serotonin histamine increased HJr ions in the lumen of the stomach increased peptides in the lumen of the stomach acetylcholine Which of the following is most likely to be associated with a hiatal hernia? 99.0.65» inflammatory bowel disease peptic ulcer {disease gastroesophageal reflux disease gallstones celiac disease Which of the following is an example of intestinal phase regulation? 99.0.65» food in the stomach promotes gastric emptying into the duodenum food acting as a buffer increases acid secretion smell of food triggers salivation amino acids trigger endocrine cells to secrete CCK amino acids trigger endocrine cells to secrete gastrin Page 6 of 13 ' 23. Which of the following could cause hypochlorhydria (hyposecretion of acid)? (choose best) pyloric gastritis Barrett’s esophagus hypersecretion of gastrin autoimmune disease that destroys parietal cells use of NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti—inflammatory drugs) 999.0%» 24. Which of the following is associated with an increased risk for the development of gastric cancer? atrophy of gastric glands with intestinal metaplasia . , acid hypersecretion Barrett’s esophagus duodenal ulcer endocrine dysregulation in the pylorus 99.00%» 25. Contraction of the sphincter of Oddi occurs a. in response to CCK b. during. the interdigestive period c. during the digestive period 26. According to what was said in lecture, which of the following promotes stomach emptying? a. gastrin b. secretin c. GLP-l d. CCK e. fats in the duodenum 27. All of the following are turned on by cephalic phase stimuli EXCEPT acid secretion by parietal cells ' receptive relaxation segmentation V migrating myoelectric complex pancreatic secretion 9999‘s» 28. Which of the following is TRUE about bile salts? most gallstones are formed from precipitates of bile salts bile salts are poorly soluble in the aqueous environment of the digestive tract 95% of bile salts are absorbed into the circulation at the ileum an increased plasma concentration of bile salts inhibits bile salt secretion by hepatocytes ' e. the bile salt pool in the gallbladder is sufficient to complete digestion of all the fat in a typical meal 9*.“ F7.” Page 7 of 13 29. 30. 32. 33. 34. Which of the following disorders is associated'with gallstones? celiac disease pancreatitis ulcerative colitis duodenal ulcer lactose intolerance 99.0.69 Where would you find the cell body of a neuron that synapse onto and stimulates contraction of muscle cells in internal anal sphincter? . ventral horn of spinal cord lateral horn of spinal cord dorsal root ganglion primary motor cortex myenteric plexus 99.0.69 . During defecation, which of the following muscles contract to promote the movement of feces through the anal canal? (choose best) abdominal muscle internal anal sphincter external anal sphincter puborectalis muscle both puborectalis and external anal sphincter .99??? Which of the following liver cells is a macrophage that consumes aged red blood cells and stores iron? a. hepatocyte b. endothelial cell c. stellate cell d. Kupffer'cell e. duct cell Which of the following lipoproteins functions primarily to deliver cholesterol to cells in the body? a. HDL b. LDL - c. VLDL d. chylomicron Which of the following is necessary for cells to be able to utilize cholesterol from lipoproteins in the circulation? ' reverse cholesterol transport receptor-mediated endocytosis cholesterol transporter inhibited by drug ezetimibe lipoprotein lipase HMG-CoA reductase 9999‘.” Page 8 of 13 35. Which of the following is associated with a decreased risk for atherosclerosis? a. high triglyceride levels b. high levels of LDL cholesterol 0. high levels of HDL cholesterol d. high fasting blood glucose 36. In cross~bridge cycling, which of the following occurs immediately before the powerstroke? (choose best) myosin binds to ATP myosin hydrolyzes ATP myosin binds to actin myosin dissociates from actin 999‘?” 37. In which type of muscle can cells be electrically coupled? (choose best) a. skeletal muscle only b. cardiac muscle only c. smooth and skeletal muscle d. smooth and cardiac muscle e. cardiac and skeletal muscle 38. During excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle, a. Ca++ from the ECF enters the cell via voltage—gated channels in the sarcolemma b. Ca++-calmodulin activates creatine kinase c. depolarization of the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane opens a voltage— gated channel d. the T-tubule voltage sensor interacts with the foot of the sarcoplasmic reticulum channel e. 1P3 opens ligand gated Ca++ channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum 39. Which of the following changes is required before cross-bridge cycling can occur in smooth muscle? myosin head needs to be phosphorylated actin filament needs to be phosphorylated smooth muscle must be depolarized Ca"+-calmodulin must activate creatine kinase Ca"+ must bind to troponin 0.94.0975» 40. Slow oxidative fibers have a slow contraction velocity because they have fewer myofibrils have a myosin that hydrolyzes ATP at a slower rate have more myoglobin, which interferes with cross-bridge cycling have a slower rate of action potential conduction generate ATP using oxidative phosphorylation 0999‘s» Page 9 of 13 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. Recruitment to produce force during muscle contraction involves (choose best) activation of more muscle fibers within the motor unit addition of more myofibrils to increase muscle fiber diameter activation of more and larger motor units all of the above ' 999‘.” What type of muscle fiber is innervated by the somatic efferent neurons with the smallest cell bodies? a. slow oxidative b. fast oxidative c. fast glycolytic A doctor gives a sharp rap to the patellar tendon to elicit a stretch reflex. Which of the following is the sensor that is activated? Meissner’s corpuscle gamma motor neuron C-fiber neuron Golgi tendon organ muscle spindle 0999‘?» During muscle contraction, muscle spindle sensitivity is maintained through the activation of the - a. alpha motor neuron b. gamma motor neuron c. Golgi tendon organ afferent d. muscle spindle afferent Which of the following is a typical symptom seen in a patient that is newly diagnosed "with Parkinson’s disease? a. bradykinesia b. low muscle tone 0. intention tremor d. chorea e. hyperreflexia Which of the following is the mechanism of action for benzodia'zepines? GABA antagonist increase release of dopamine and norepinephrine block reuptake of serotonin enhance the effect of GABA serotonin antagonist 09.0.0“? Page 10 of 13 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. Which of the following is true about the orexin—secreting neurons of the hypothalamus? they inhibit cells in the arousal-promoting nuclei they excite cells in the arousal-promoting nuclei they excite cells in the sleep—promoting nucleus VLPO they are most active during REM sleep they are most active during non-REM sleep 0999‘?) Following a stroke, glutamate diffusing from the initial region of damage causes further damage via “excitotoxicity”. Which one of the following is activated in this process? (choose best) cell adhesion molecules caspase beta amyloid protein superoxide dismutase neurotropin ' 99.0.69 In a typical resting neuron, which one of the following are present? a. ungated K+ ion channels b. ungated Na+ channels 0. ungated Ca++ channels At a typical resting membrane potential, in which direction would K+ tend to move through an open K+ channel due only to the effect of the concentration gradient? a. into the cell ' b. out of the cell c. neither into nor out of the cell Na+ K+ cl- Refer to the figure to the right, which shows Na+ the membrane potential and equilibrium potentials. What happens to the membrane potential if the Q1” channel opens at the arrow? a. depolarization b. hyper polarization 0. no change in the membrane potential Ungated (K+ fairly high. (31— fairly low Na+ quite low) +60 TL Page 11 of13 ENa+ Ecl— 'EK+‘ 52. In what net direction will Na+ ions move through an open Na+ channel if the membrane potential is +10 mV? ' 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. a. b. c. inward outward neither inward nor outward Which one of the following degenerates in diabetic peripheral neuropathy? a. b. axon myelin Which one of the following best describes paresthesia? 0999‘s» diplopia ataxia tingling or burning abnormal sensation nystagmus aphasia What term refers to the process in which a postsynaptic potential piles on top of one immediately preceding it? 09.0.6?» adaptation reception TENS summation wind-up Which one of the following best describes an enkephalin? 9.0—9.6?» peptide binding to opioid receptor neurotransmitter released by A-delta afferent neurons inflammatory paracrine released by C afferent neurons in axon reflex causes allodynia blocks the action of morphine According to what was said in class, which one of the following best describes why visceral pain is “referred”? (choose best) a. b. The afferents of pain sensors cross the to the other side of the spinal cord. Stimulation of mechanoreceptors in the skin excites inhibitory interneurons in the dorsal horn. Afferents from the viscera converge on the same neurons in the dorsal horn as afferents from the skin. The cerebral cortex is somatotopically organized. Substance P is released by visceral afferents. Page 12 ofl3 58. What term refers, in general, to pain due to neuronal abnormalities rather than to a painful stimulus? a. amyotrophic b. neuritis c. nocioceptive d. tonic-clonic e. neuropathic 59. What type of ligand gated ion channel only opens following prolonged release of glutamate? a. TENS b. NMDA c. VEGF d. sympathetically maintained. 6. GABA 60. Which one of the following is the reason why anti—VEGF antibodies are used? open canal of Schlemm reduce production of aqueous humor . stimulate hair cells slow abnormal growth of blood vessels bind otoconia 99.09%» PLACE MARK-SENSE FORM INSIDE EXAM AND TURN THEM IN TOGETHER. Have a nice spring break! Page 13 of13 ...
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conj402_final_2010 - CONJOINT 402 , LAB TIME FINAL EXAM...

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