conj402_final_2010_answers

conj402_final_2010_answers - CONJOINT 402 FINAL EXAM “LAB...

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Unformatted text preview: CONJOINT 402 FINAL EXAM “LAB TIME NAME March 17‘“, 2010 Following directions on the mark-sense form, write your name, student number and major (PP=Pharmacy; SS=Special Permission) in the blanks and fill in the bubbles. On the blanks above, write your lab section and name. In addition, write your name on the back of this exam. When finished with the test, place the mark-sense form inside the exam form and mm in the exam and mark-sense form together. FILL-IN THE BLANKS: Write your answers on this page. (2 points each) A. Name the lipoproteins that are produced by enterocytes, and contain absorbed triacylglycerol, fat-soluble vitamins, and cholesterol. Qi/iyifl Mi 6;er ifs-5 . Name the cell in the stomach that is responsible for secreting pepsinogen. j @416? Cell; Name the substance that is secreted by the pancreatic duct cells. bi wakaczmmitf, (HC03'> D. Name. the disorder in which the normal mucosa of the esophagus is replaced with a mucosa that resembles that of the small intestine. (9)0“! re“ QS c) EA on»? US E. Name the neurotransmitter/paracrine whose receptor is blocked by T +0 _ the antiemetic drug ondansetron. 5 an) A ‘ "Al F. Name the mechanism whereby bile salts are recycled during a ‘i—éwfe («0 L1 3 E aj’i‘c meal. ~ . ' _l Ct remit edit 0 W G. Name the iron binding protein that it found in the plasma. The degree of saturation of this protein is often used to determine the .‘r (‘ka £6 {we {A amount of iron in the body. H. Name the membrane protein that is important for fluid secretion in the pancreas and small intestine. CFTR I. , Name the term that means inflammation in the stomach. j angif‘i-i'i S L J. What is the principal effect of the dyslipidemia drug niacin? HDLl l MCNWS Page 1 of 13 SHORT ANSWER Write your answers on this page. K. What causes hepcidin secretion to increase? Describe the molecular effect of hepc1d1n on enterocytes. (3 pomts) Ha? Q; A“ g 5 GE: an? —‘ margyggg €15 EV“ fig ga. +9 {c.végggfifi 3 353%? ' i: m H w ) A r .» " » 50! f’ i‘m Qua mg; g5 O u {row Mt? 50,6, ‘3 . Clause; #5 aefifgudlm‘i‘vfih» Maui: lifchcéraaéai ' l L r’ * - ' .56 = 93:: man '5 V10 refth 7m MOM Dvlo$orégham Cw l (904» ‘ L. During the gastric phase, food in the stomach greatly stimulates acid secretlo because it acts as a buffer. What is a buffer? Describe how food acting as a buffer promotes acid secretion through its effects on regulatory molecules in the stomach. (4 4% t "S points) A b agar 1; 0L ' was We a mt WKKWS \ . C 6/5 be p H i #4413 ewe y, [-ffifia (:33 55 a. 34.51; i“ *3“ 3%“mgg ) pwe ads ‘ P H haircare a.ka N Wt 5 M3 by ‘ at . Slime/M“) 3 m l 53 Q“; l fififi‘fl” 36a, eat. “3"‘£=-»a*m v be: mpw M i . ‘v E. .. " a 1‘ . 9 f ' 2;} $59; a. m. «m erg “‘6 fi‘§_:€:;g a a”: t ‘1 @ V DA 3 NW»... 5 .é ""6 ,g- c. I) 3., 1315' ’ 5“? q _. § 6 r *7 a" ’53 a” my]? gg,.~ T W _ ‘ If ‘ 1 ‘ W .9 0&5 j [’l (E M +- 53”“ grew g" Mi Qt: MW." " a M. Familial hypercholesterolemia is a disorder in which individuals develop severe atherosclerosis and have heart attacks at a young age. What protein is defective in this disorder, and what are the consequences for blood lipid levels? (3 points) V "GJJWH Er 6w: W, LDL renew?“ pifi dewcec‘b‘ve m k m (/Q‘v»§/€qt)€/WC-€ J? LDL war fiféami Wk avatargti‘aam v i a is; @flv-MSQ a: amt Wag, 53 a». ’ M Wésghgé . ~ 32?“; 4 a I. _, v x u ‘ Page 2 of 13 a . ~ r ,v "‘ ' $3»? W i “ii-a“ at a 5 ‘ M' STARTING NOW, PLACE ALL ANSWERS ON THE MARK-SENSE FORM MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the BEST answer. (2 points each) 1. Which of the following spaces is continuous with the external environment? (choose best lumen of hepatic bile duct b. peritoneal cavity c. liver sinusoid d. lamina propria e. lumen of hepatic portal vein 2. Which of the following substances is targeted for excretion via the digestive tract? a. iron ' - ' b. glucose c. triacylglycerol cholesterol e. gastrin 3. Which of the following is an exocrine secretion of the pancreas? a. CCK (cholecystokinin) b. secretin c. insulin d. pepsinogen bicarbonate ions (HCOg') 4. Intrinsic factor, which is secreted by parietal cells, is necessary for a. activation of pepsinogen absorption of vitamin B12 0. absorption of iron d. digestion of proteins e. production of mucus in the stomach 5. Which of the following is responsible for the activation of trypsinogen? ' a low pH brush border enzyme c. pancreatic amylase d. trypsin inhibitor e. high pH Page 3 0f13 6. Which of the following is true for the majority of individuals who are lactose intolerant? a. they have a mutation in the gene that codes for pancreatic amylase b. they have an autoimmune response to lactose that is mediated by CD4+ T cells ‘ @ they develop a deficiency in a brush border enzyme d. they have an allergy to milk proteins e. they are anemic - 7, Which of the following depends on the movement of intact protein across the intestinal epithelium via transcytosis? a. absorption of cholesterol b. formation of micelles © secretion of lgA to the intestinal lumen Cl. secretion of hormone gastrin e. activation of pancreatic zymogens 8. This protein moves glucose across the apical membrane of the enterocyte. a. glucose transporter b. ferroportin c. DMT—l Na+/K+-ATPase e. Na+/glucose cotransporter 9. The figure shows gluten peptides stimulating the immune response in celiac disease. In which part of the digestive tract does this occur? (choose best) a. apical surface of enterocytes lamina propria - 4—- gluten peptides c. submucosa 10. Bile salts are present in all of the following EXCEPT a. hepatic portal vein b. hepatic bile duct @ chylomicrons d. micelles e. emulsion droplets - Page 4 of 13 ll. 12. 13. ' following disorders? 14. 15. 16. Wich of the following helps deliver chylomicrons to the general circulation? lacteals b. bile salts c. colipase d. LDL receptor e. transcytosis Which of the following is true for the disorder hereditary hemochromatosis caused by mutation in the protein fl? a. there is deficient absorption of iron b. anemia is caused by red blood cell breakdown © there is deficient secretion of hepcidin d. it is treated with blood transfusions e. anemia is caused by excessive secretion of hepcidin A duodenal biopsy showing flattened mucosa is used to diagnose which of the a. H. pylori infection in the pylorus b. pernicious anemia c. hemochromatosis d. lactose intolerance celiac disease Ho are slow waves in the muscularis externa generated? spontaneous electrical activity in specialized smooth muscle cells rhythmic excitatory input from efferent neurons in the myenteric plexus c. rhythmic excitatory input from parasympathetic neurons travelling in the vagus nerve In the stomach, stronger contractions of the smooth muscle are caused by . the hormone CCK ' I an increase in the number of action potentials at the peak of the slow wave H an increase in the frequency of the basic electrical rhythm What is the principal location of the endocrine cells that release the hormone secretin? , a. submucous plexus b. epithelium in the body of the stomach c. epithelium in the pylorus of the stomach . epithelium of the duodenum e. myenteric plexus Page 5 of 13 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. Suppose following a swallow, some food remains in the esophagus. What occurs next? receptive relaxation of lower esophagus combined with gravity deliver food to ' 6:; stomach c. distension of esophagus triggers reflux of gastric juice so digestion can begin d. distension of esophagus triggers vomiting secondary peristalsis propels food to stomach Aprepitant is a substance P antagonist. Which gastrointestinal disorder is this drug used to treat? a. gastroesophageal reflux disease b. inflammatory bowel disease ’ peptic ulcer , i chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting pancreatitis Which of the following stimulates translocation of H+/K+-ATPaSes to the apical membrane of parietal cells? a increased H" ions in the lumen of the stomach b. increased H" ions in the lumen of the duodenum c. somatostatin d. Serotonin 1‘; histamine Which of the following triggers increased secretion of somatostatin? (choose best) a. serotonin b. histamine @ increased H+ ions in the lumen of the stomach d. increased peptides in the lumen of the stomach e. acetylcholine Which of the following is most likely to be associated with a hiatal hernia? a. inflammatory bowel disease b. peptic ulcer disease (c) gastroesophageal reflux disease d. gallstones ' e. celiac disease Which of the following is an example of intestinal phase regulation? a. food in the stomach promotes gastric emptying into the duodenum b. food acting as a buffer increases acid secretion 0. smell of food triggers salivation amino acids trigger endocrine cells to secrete CCK 6. amino acids trigger endocrine cells to secrete gastrin Page 6 of 13 23. 24. 25. 26._ ' 27. 28. Which of the following could cause hypochlorhydria (hyposecretion of acid)? (choose best) a. pyloric gastritis b. Barrett’s esophagus . c. hypersecretion of gastrin autoimmune disease that destroys parietal cells 6. use of NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti—inflammatory drugs) Which of the following is associated with an increased risk for the development of gastric cancer? atrophy of gastric glands with intestinal metaplasia I acid hypersecretion Barrett’s esophagus duodenal ulcer endocrine dysregulation in the pylorus b. c. d. e. Contraction of the sphincter of Oddi occurs in response to CCK during the interdigestive period c.‘ during the digestive period According to what was said in lecture, which of the following promotes stomach emying? gastrin b. secretin c. GLP-l— d. CCK e. fats in the duodenum All of the following are turned on by cephalic phase stimuli EXCEPT a. acid secretion by parietal cells ‘ b. receptive relaxation _ c. segmentation @migrating myoelectric complex e. pancreatic secretion Which of the following is TRUE about bile salts? a. most gallstones are formed from precipitates of bile salts b. bile salts are poorly soluble in the aqueous environment of the digestive tract 95% of bile salts are absorbed into the circulation at the ileum d. an increased plasma concentration of bile salts inhibits bile salt secretion by hepatocytes e. the bile salt pool in the gallbladder is sufficient to complete digestion of all the fat in a typical meal Page 7 of 13 29. 30. 32. 33. Which of the following disorders is associated with gallstones? a. celiac disease pancreatitis c. ulcerative colitis d. duodenal ulcer e. lactose intolerance Where would you find the cell body of a neuron that synapse onto and stimulates contraction of muscle cells in internal anal sphincter? ventral horn of spinal cord lateral horn of spinal cord dorsal root ganglion primary motor cortex myenteric plexus 3999‘?” . During defecation, which of the following muscles contract to promote the movement of fees through the anal canal? (choose best) abdominal muscle i ‘ internal anal sphincter external anal sphincter puborectalis muscle both puborectalis and external anal sphincter i c. d. e. Which of the following liver cells is a macrophage that consumes aged red blood cells and stores iron? a. hepatocyte b. endothelial cell I \ stellate cell Kupffer cell duct cell Which Of the following lipoproteins functions primarily to deliver cholesterol to cells in the body? a. HDL ® LDL c. VLDL d. chylomicron . Which of the following is necessary for cells to be able to utilize cholesterol from lipoproteins in the circulation? reverse cholesterol transport receptor-mediated endocytosis . cholesterol transporter inhibited by drug ezetimibe d. lipoprotein lipase e. HMG—COA reductase Page 8 of 13 35. Which of the following is associated with a decreased risk for atherosclerosis? a. high triglyceride levels b. high levels of LDL cholesterol c. high levels of HDL cholesterol . high fasting blood glucose 36. In cross-bridge cycling, which of the following occurs immediately before the powerstroke? (choose best) ' a. myosin binds to ATP b. myosin hydrolyzes ATP myosin binds to actin d. myosin dissociates from actin 37. In which type of muscle can cells be electrically coupled? (choose best) a. skeletal muscle only b. cardiac muscle only c. smooth and skeletal muscle smooth and cardiac muscle e. cardiac and skeletal muscle 38. During excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle, a. Ca++ from the ECF enters the cell Via voltage-gated channels in the sarcolemma b. Ca++—calmodulin activates creatine kinase c. depolarization of the sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane opens a voltage-gated channel I the T-tubule voltage sensor interacts with the foot of the sarcoplasmic reticulum channel e. 1P3 opens ligand gated Ca++ channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum 39. Which of the following changes is required before cross-bridge cycling can occur in _ smooth muscle? myosin head needs to be phosphorylated . actin filament needs to be phosphorylated c. smooth muscle must be depolarized d. e. Ca++-calmodulin must activate creatine kinase ++ - - Ca must bind to troponin 40. Slow oxidative fibers have a slow contraction velocity because they a. have fewer myofibrils I have a myosin that hydrolyzes ATP at a slower rate have more myoglobin, which interferes with cross-bridge cycling . have a slower rate of action potential conduction e. generate ATP using oxidative phosphorylation Page 9 of 13 41. 42. 43. ’ 44. 45. 46. Recruitment to produce force during muscle contraction involves (choose best) a. activation of more muscle fibers within the motor unit b. addition of more myofibrils to increase muscle fiber diameter @ activation of more and larger motor units d. all of the above What type of muscle fiber is innervated by the somatic efferent neurons with the smallest cell bodies? slow oxidative . fast oxidative 0. fast glycolytic A doctor gives a sharp rap to the patellar tendon to elicit a stretch reflex. Which of the following is the sensor that is activated? a. Meissner’s corpuscle b. gamma motor neuron c. C-flber neuron d. Golgi tendon organ muscle spindle During muscle contraction, muscle spindle sensitivity is maintained through the activation of the a alpha motor neuron gamma motor neuron Golgi tendon organ afferent d. muscle spindle afferent Which of the following is a typical symptom seen in a patient that is newly diagnosed wit Parkinson’s disease? '" bradykinesia b. low muscle tone c. intention tremor d. chorea e. hypeireflexia Which of the following is the mechanism of action for benzodiazepines? a. GABA antagonist b. increase release of dopamine and norepinephrine c. block reuptake of serotonin enhance the effect of GABA e. serotonin antagonist Page 10 of13 47. Which of the following is true about the orexin-secreting neurons of the hypothalamus? a they inhibit cells in the arousal-promoting nuclei b they excite cells in the arousal—promoting nuclei 0. they excite cells in the sleep-promoting nucleus VLPO (1. they are most active during REM sleep e. they are most active during non-REM sleep 48. Following a stroke, glutamate diffusing from the initial region of damage causes further damage via “excitotoxicity”. Which one of the following is activated in this process? (choose best) a. cell adhesion molecules caspase c. beta amyloid protein d. superoxide dismutase e. neurotropin 49. In a typical resting neuron, which one of the following are present? ungated K+ ion channels b. ungated Na+ channels c. ungated Ca++ channels 50. At a typical resting membrane potential, in which direction would K+ tend to move through an open K+ channel due only to the effect of the concentration gradient? . into the cell ' out of the cell c. neither into nor out of the cell + Na+ K cl- 51. Refer to the figure to the right, which shows Na+ the membrane potential and equilibrium potentials. What happens to the membrane potential if the Q1" channel opens at the arrow? Ungated a. depolarization. (fiffgsa’wfl. +60 b. hyper polarization Na+°u-te*°w) no change in the membrane potential » ' o —70 m TL Page 11 of13 ENa+ Ecl- EK+ 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. In what net direction will Na+ ions move through an open Na+ channel if the mibrane potential is +10 mV? inward . outward c. neither inward nor outward Which one of the following degenerates in diabetic peripheral neuropathy? axon b. myelin Which one of the following best describes paresthesia? ' a. diplopia . b. ataxia tingling or burning abnormal sensation d. nystagmus e.‘ aphasia What term refers to the prOcess in which a postsynaptic potential piles on top of one immediately preceding it? a. adaptation b. reception . c. summation e. wind-up Which one of the following best describes an enkephalin? peptide binding to opioid receptor neurotransmitter released by A—delta afferent neurons inflammatory paracrine released by C afferent neurons in axon reflex causes allodynia blocks the action of morphine 99.0.63 According to what was said in class, which one of the following best describes why visceral ain is “referred”? (choose best) The afferents of pain sensors cross the to the other side of the spinal cord. Stimulation of mechanoreceptors in the skin excites inhibitory interneurons in the dorsal horn. Afferents from the viscera converge on the same neurons in the dorsal horn as afferents from the skin. ' The cerebral cortex is somatotopically organized. Substance P is released by visceral afferents. a. b. © (1. e. Page 12 of 13 58. What term refers, in general, to pain due to neuronal abnormalities rather than to a painful stimulus? a. amyotrophic b. neuritis c. nocioceptive d tonic—clonic neuropathic 59. What type of ligand gated ion channel only opens following prolonged release of glutamate? . . TENS NMDA c. VEGF d. sympathetically maintained e. GABA 60. Which one of the following is the reason why anti-VEGF antibodies are used? a. open canal of Schlemm ' b. reduce production of aqueous humor . stimulate hair cells slow abnormal growth of blood vessels 6. bind otoconia PLACE MARK-SENSE FORM INSIDE EXAM AND TURN THEM IN TOGETHER. Have a nice spring break! Page 13 of 13 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/03/2012 for the course CONJ 402 taught by Professor Thomaslinder during the Fall '10 term at University of Washington.

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conj402_final_2010_answers - CONJOINT 402 FINAL EXAM “LAB...

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