conj402_final_2011 - CONJOINT 402 LAB TIME FINAL EXAM NAME...

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Unformatted text preview: CONJOINT 402 LAB TIME FINAL EXAM ' NAME March 16‘“, 2011 Following directions on the mark—sense form, write your name, student number and major (PP=Pharmacy; SS=Special Permission) in the blanks and fill in the bubbles. On the blanks above, write your lab section and name. In addition, write your name on the back ofthis exam. When finished with the test, place the mark-sense form inside the exam form and turn in the exam and mark-sense form together. FILL-IN THE BLANKS: ' Write your answers on this page. (2 points each) Name the structure that forms from two sheets of peritoneum associated with the small intestine. This structure contains blood vessels and adipose tissue. Name the general term for the inactive precursor of a protein. Protein— digesting enzymes are first secreted in this form. Name a substance in the bile that is targeted for excretion via the feces. Name the term for the folds located in the apical plasma membrane of enterocytes. ' ' Name the iron transporter found on the basolateral membrane of enterocytes. Name the region of the brain that responds to factors in the circulation to trigger emesis. This region of the brain has an incomplete blood—brain barrier. Name the digestive enzyme that works at the surface of emulsion droplets. . What type of neuron innervates the muscle of the external anal sphincter? in what part ofthe stomach does infection with H. pylori and gastritis lead to atrophy of the gastric glands and hypochlorhydria? Name the triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein that is produced by the liver. (An 7 abbreviation is okay). Page 1 of 14 SHORT ANSWER Write your answers on this page. K. Describe the sequence of events whereby fats in the duodenum trigger the release of bile into the digestive tract. 0 What regulatory molecule has its secretion triggered by fats in the duodenum? ~ 0 What are the targets for this regulatory molecule? 0 What are the effects that allow bile release? (4 points) L. A gastrinoma is a tumor that hypersecretes the hormone gastrin. Which cells in the stomach secrete acid. What is the direct effect of gastrin on these same cells? What would be the consequence of gastrin hypersecretion? (3 points) M. Describe what occurs in intestinal metaglasia. Give an example of a disorder in which intestinal metaplasia occurs. (3 points) ’ Page 2 of 14 v STARTING Now, PLACE ALL ANSWERS ON THE MARK-SENSE FORM MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the BEST answer. (2 points each) 1. Which of the following is part of the internal environment, i.e. NOT continuous with the external environment? a. {DQ90- lumen of small intestine lumen of pancreatic duct lumen of common bile duct oral cavity I peritoneal cavity 2. Which ofthe'following is an exocrine secretion ofthe stomach? (choose best) a. {napo- mucus gastrin .somatostatin cholecystokinin (CCK) histamine 3. Which ofthe following typically occurs in the stomach? (choose best) a. {Dpr digestion absorption of nutrients secretion all of the above occur in the stomach digestion and secretion occur, but not absorption of nutrients 4. Which of the following statements about the digestive system is true? a. b. c. most of what is eliminated in the feces is metabolic waste less than half of the fluids that pass through thedigestive tract are absorbed most of the fluid in the digestive tract is ingested, very little is contributed by secretion ' with a few exceptions (e.g. iron) the digestive tract does not regulate absorption secretions into the lumen of the digestive tract are considered endocrine secretions 5. What is the source of the enzyme lactase? a. {nde secreted by the pancreas secreted by the salivary gland secreted by the stomach expressed on the apical surface of enterocytes secreted by hepatocytes Page 3 of 14 10. 11. Which of the following is found in the lamina propria? a. muscularic mucosae goblet cells endocrine cells that release gastrin enteric neuron cell bodies MALT (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue) {00.06 Which ofthe following proteins is responsible for establishing the concentration gradient that powers the absorption ‘of glucose? ' a. H+/K+—.ATPase b. Na+/glucose co-transporter c. Na+/K+—ATPase d. voltage gated Na+ channel e. Ca++—ATPase Which of the following normally activates trypsinogen? a. pepsin b. hydrochloric acid c. trypsin inhibitor d. autolysis e. enterokinase What type of white blood cell orchestrates the immune system response to gluten in celiac disease? (choose best) a. B cell secreting lgE b CD4+ T cell c. eosinophil d neutrophil Which of the following would most directly decrease vitamin 812 absorption? a. duodenal ulcer b. ulcerative colitis c. excess gastrin secretion cl. loss of parietal cells in the stomach e. flattened mucosa in the duodenum ln inflammatory bowel disease, there is an inappropriate activation ofthe mucosal immune system to normally tolerated commensal bacteria. Which of the following is considered an inflammatory bowel disease? a. celiac disease duodenal ulcer ulcerative colitis Barrett’s esophagus ‘ acute pancreatitis {00.90- Page 4 of 14 12. All of the following are amphipathic EXCEPT a. apolipoprotein b. colipase c. bile salt d. phospholipid e. triacylglycerol 13. Which of the following is found in a chylomicron? a. apolipoprotein cohpase bile salt pancreatic lipase lipoprotein lipase [DQ00- 14. A treatment is being developed that blocks zonulin, a factor that causes tight junctions to open up and increases intestinal permeability. For which ofthe ‘ following disorders is this treatment being developed? a. hemochromatosis pernicious anemia cystic fibrosis celiac disease gastroesophageal reflux disorder {00.05- 15. Which of the following describes hepcidin? a. binds to and causes degradation of ferroportin b binds to and causes degradation oftransferrin c hormone that stimulates red blood cell production d. iron transporter in basolateral enterocyte membrane e iron transporter in apical enterocyte membrane 16. In the disorder hemochromatosis, there is a deficiency in a. red blood cell production b. intestinal iron absorption c. hepcidin secretion d. synthesis of bile pigments e. iron stored in the liver 17. The Basic Electrical Rhythm (slow waves) is generated by a. neuronal activity in the myenteric plexus b. spontaneous electrical activity in specialized smooth muscle cells c. parasympathetic inputs via the vagus nerve Page 5 of 14 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. An excitatory input to smooth muscle in the stomach causes depolarization of smooth muscle cells. What is the consequence? (choose best) a. increased frequency of stomach contractions b. increased number of action potentials at the peak ofthe slow wave c. relaxation ofthe pyloric sphincter d. all of the above occur in response to excitatory inputs Where is the location of endocrine cells that secrete the hormone cholecystokinin? a. epithelium in pylorus of stomach b. epithelium in bile duct c. epithelium in duodenum _ d. submucosa in duodenum e. lamina propria in duodenum Which of the following drugs would be used to treat gastroesphageal reflux disorder? ' a. serotonin (5—HT3) antagonist b. histamine (H2 antagonist) c. substance P antagonist d. GLP—l agonist e. acetylcholinesterase inhibitor Which ofthe following might cause gastroesphageal reflux? a. increased tone in the lower esophageal sphincter increased tone in the pyloric sphincter decreased tone in the lower esophageal sphincter decreased abdominal pressure infection with H. pylori {Dng Which of the following is associated with an increased risk for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma? a. infection with H. pylori hypochlorhydria Barrett’s esophagus cystic fibrosis hemochromatosis were? Which ofthe following proteins is necessary for gastric acid secretion? a. intrinsic factor CFTR Na+/glucose co—transporter H+/K+—ATPase pepsin {D 9.00- Page 6 of 14 24. Acid secretion by parietal cells is stimulated by acetylcholine released by a. sympathetic preganglionic neurons b. somatic efferent neurons c. enteric neurons ' d. ECL cells ' 25. Low pH (an increased concentration of H+ ions) in the lumen of the stomach directly stimulates secretion of this regulatory molecule. a. secretin b serotonin c histamine d. somatostatin e gastrin 26. Which of the following is a component of intestinal phase regulation of acid secretion? a. digestive products in the duodenum stimulate enterogastrone release b peptides in the stomach stimulate gastrin release c. food in the stomach acts as a buffer d food in the mouth activates parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in the vagus nerve ‘ e. ~ decreased pH in the stomach stimulates somatostatin secretion 27. Which of the following directly stimulates secretion by ductcells in the pancreas? a. bicarbonate b. secretin c. gastrin d. cholecystokinin (CCK) e. histamine 28. Which of the following conditions would cause the most difficulty with digestion and absorption of fats but not proteins? (choose best) a. dyslipidemia celiac disease gallstone lodged in common bile duct ulcerative colitis gallstone lodged in cystic bile duct gang - Page 7 of 14 29. Which ofthe following proteins is involved in fluid secretion by pancreatic duct cells? a. cofipase b. CFTR c. Na+/g|ucose co~transporter d. H+/K+-ATPase e. intrinsic factor 30. What type of motility is triggered by cephalic phase stimuli? (choose best) a. segmentation in small intestine . receptive relaxation in the stomach migrating myoelectic complex (MMC) both segmentation and receptive relaxation both receptive relaxation and the MMC {0de 31. Which of the following describes the motility that is characteristic of the interdigestive period in the small intestine? a. migrating myoelectric complex (MMC) massmovement receptive relaxation segmentation . there is no motility in the small intestine during the interdigestive period groang 32. Which ofthe following muscles relaxes during the defecation reflex? a. muscularis externa surrounding rectum b. muscularis externa surrounding sigmoid colon c. external anal sphincter d. puborectalis muscle e. internal anal sphincter 33. Which of the following cells in the liver proliferates and produces connective tissue to cause fibrosis in response to hepatic injury? a. stellate cell (Ito cell) b. Kupffer cell c. endothelial cell d. hepatocyte e. platelet 34. Familial hypercholesterolemia is caused by a defect in a. cholesterol synthesis b. LDL receptor c. specific apolipoprotein found in HDL d. Iipoprotein lipase e. reverse cholesterol transport Page 8 of 14 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. Niacin is given in high doses in order to a. increase the absorption of vitamin Blz inhibit cholesterol absorption in the GI tract inhibit reverse cholesterol transport increase levels of HDL cholesterol inhibit HMG—CoA reductase roan In cross—bridge cycling, which step immediately precedes the powerstroke? a. ATP binding to actin b. ATP binding to myosin c. . myosin head binding to actin d. ATP hydrolysis e. myosin head dissociating from actin Which ofthe following is involved in excitation—contraction coupling in skeletal muscle? a. T-tubule voltage sensor b. calmodulin c. myosin light chain phosphatase (:1. voltage—gated Ca++.channel in plasma membrane e. ligand—gated Ca++ channel in sarcoplasmic reticulum To which of the following proteins does calcium bind in the regulation of smooth muscle contraction? .a. calmodulin b. troponin c. tropomyosin cl. myosin head e. actin Myasthenia gravis causes muscle weakness because it causes a. muscle cell degeneration a defect in excitation contraction coupling I a decrease in the number of functional acetylcholine receptors a decrease in the recruitment of motor units ' a decrease in the rate of cross-bridge cycling {napo- Which of the following is true about a skeletal muscle twitch? (choose best) a. a twitch is the maximal mechanical response that a muscle fiber can produce b. a tWitch is the mechanical response to a single action potential ' c. a twitch is the mechanical response to a volley of action potentials 01. both “a” and "b" are true Page 9 of 14 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. Smooth muscle activity is regulated by a. tropomyosin b. upper motor neurons c. somatic efferent neurons d. gap junctions e. T-tubules Which of the following best explains the rule for the recruitment of motor units? (choose best) a. the smallest somaticefferent neurons are the easiest to excite b. the largest somatic efferent neurons are the easiest to excite c. the oxidative muscle fibers are the easiest to excite d. the glycolytic muscle fibers are the easiest to excite stretch i»; The figure at right depicts the stretch reflex as a negative feedback loop. What is the regulated variable? - i L 7 §3- muzi'fzsgz‘d'e a. muscle length ~ , b. muscle tension i G c. muscle tone In which of the following circumstances is there an increase in muscle tone? a. following degeneration of the muscle spindle afferents ‘ during an attack of cataplexy during REM sleep following degeneration of the somatic efferent neurons was“? following damage to the upper motor neurons Which of the following is a typical symptom of Parkinson’s disease? a. intention tremor b resting tremor c ataxia d. hypotonia e chorea Page 10 of 14 somatic efferent ‘— neuron CNS inputs 46. 47. 48. i might occur following a stroke? 49. All ofthe following occur during REM sleep EXCEPT a. slow waves in the EEG b vivid dreaming c rapid eye movements d. lack of skeletal muscle tone e decreased firing of norepinephrine-releasing neurons in the LC Which of the followingis the neurotransmitter released by neurons in the sleep- promoting nucleus VLPO? a. orexin b norepinephrine c serotonin d. histamine e GABA Which one of the following is most closely associated with "excitotoxicity”, such as a. GABA b. substance P c. enkephalin d. glutamate e. neurotropin Let’s say the membrane potential of a neuron is —50 mV. At this membrane potential, in what fl direction will K+ move through any open ion channels? Assume the equilibrium potential for K’r is -90 mV. 3. KJr moves inward b. K+ moves outward c. K+ moves neither outward nor inward Page 11 of14 50. Refer to the figure at the right. Observe the membrane Na+ Kt Q- Na+ potential at the time indicated by the arrow and note the ion channels already open at that point. What would some: No ~ channels already open happen next if a Cl' gated ion channel opens? Uni, Met! a. membrane potential moves to a more negative level w animal» +60 L‘lv (air-Iv ion has: finite low) (hyperpolarization) 0 cs~ thorium)" open here i b. membrane potential moves to a more positive level / r, 3 ~50 m‘é‘ ’ (depolarization) c. membrane potential does not change rm 51. Which one of the following does‘NOT have a positive equilibrium potential (i.e. greater than zero)? a. Ca++ b. Cl' c. Na“r 52. In which one of the following disorders is damage associated with a breakdown in the blood—brain barrier, followed by white blood cells binding to the endothelium and moving into the brain? (Choose best) i a. multiple sclerosis b. Alzheimer’s disease c. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease d. Huntington’s disease 53. Which one of the following determines thethreshold in a neuron? a. the equilibrium potentials for the various ions b the level at which voltage gated Na+ channels begin to open c the concentration gradient for Na+ d. the concentration gradient for K+ e the concentration gradients for both Na+ and K+ Page 12 of14 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. Where would you expect to find a v—SNARE protein? (choose best) a. sensory dendrites b astrocyte c synaptic vesicle d. microglia e node of Ranvier Suppose a neurotransmitter causes a slow postsynaptic potential. To which one of the following does the neurotransmitter bind? a. ungated ion channel b. voltage gated Na+ channel c. ligand gated Cl" channel cl. ligand gated K+ channel e. seven transmembrane domain protein A clinician looks intosomeone’s eyes with an opthalmoscope and sees edema and lipids, giving the appearance of spots of "cotton wool”. Which one ofthe following is likely the cause? a. diabetes b. glaucoma c. hyperopia d. Alzheimer’s disease e. cataracts Which one of the following is true for diabetic peripheral neuropathy? (choose best) a. can affect afferent neurons b. typically has "glove and stocking” distribution c. is primarily a demyelinating neuropathy d. choices "a" and "b" are both correct e. all of the above are correct Which one of the folloWing is true for a C pain fiber and not an A-delta pain fiber? 3. glutamate neurotransmitter released cell body in dorsal root ganglion . axons are myelinated neurotransmitter released acts on NMDA receptors she—P.0— involved in acute rather than chronic pain Page 13 of 14 59. Which one ofthe following occurs as a result of the contraction of the ciliary muscle? a. Focal point of image moves closer to the lens b. Person with hyperopia sees distant object less clearly c. Person with myopia can now see distant object in focus d. Person with myopia can now see close object better than before 60. Which ofthe following is _N_Q:[found in the cochlea? a. basilar membrane ' b. tectorial membrane c. tympanic membrane d. hair cell e. all of the above are NOT found in the cochlea PLACE MARK-SENSE FORM INSIDE EXAM AND TURN THEM IN TOGETHER. Have a nice spring break. Page 14 of 14 ...
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conj402_final_2011 - CONJOINT 402 LAB TIME FINAL EXAM NAME...

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