2 cells_07_aris - Medical Cell and Tissue Biology, BMS...

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Medical Cell and Tissue Biology, BMS 6110C John P. Aris, Ph.D. Rm B1-8, 392-1873, [email protected] Chapters 2 and 3 Eukaryotic Cells
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General Features of Cells Cell - membrane bound, genetic material (DNA) encodes molecular components, self-replicating All cells - have plasma membrane, energy source, capacity for biosynthesis, ability to communicate Eukaryotic cells - have organelles, cytoskeleton Organelles - compartments that contain specific molecules and carry out specific functions Cell - basic functional unit of tissues
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Information Flow In Cells DNA - information in linear sequence of deoxyribonucleotides RNA - information in linear sequence of ribonucleotides Protein - information in 3-D structure of folded molecule Transcription and processing (DNA to mature RNA) Translation, folding, modification, and targeting (RNA to mature protein in correct location) Function (e.g., catalysis, structure, regulation, motion) Cell - expresses information in functions and structures
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Electron micrograph E. coli Prokaryotic Cell No nucleus (no separation of transcription and translation) One (or two) membrane(s) present only at cell surface No internal organelles or cytoskeletal elements Cell wall provides shape and mechanical strength
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Electron micrograph of lymphocyte Eukaryotic Cell Nucleus present (separation of transcription and translation) Single plasma membrane delimits cell Internal organelles and cytoskeleton present No cell wall in animal cells
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Cell Membranes Membranes delimit cells and internal compartments Lipids, proteins, carbohydrates (only as modifications) Asymmetric distribution of almost all components Glycosyl modifications on exterior (ectoplasmic) side
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Nucleus Organelle specialized for DNA and RNA synthesis Nuclear envelope - 2 membranes, nuclear pores Euchromatin - light regions, mRNA and tRNA synthesis Heterochromatin - dark regions, inactive (“silent”) Nucleolus - darkest region, rRNA synthesis
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Chromatin Chromatin - DNA and DNA-binding proteins Histones - most common DNA-binding proteins Nucleosome - short cylinder of histones and DNA Chromatin (30 nm) fiber - packages DNA in nuclei Compaction - DNA is highly compacted (>1000-fold) Sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins - regulate structure and function of chromatin fiber Extended conformation - active (euchromatin) Condensed conformation - inactive (heterochromatin)
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Synthesis of ribosomal RNAs and ribosomal subunits Different regions carry out transcription, processing, and assembly of pre-ribosomal RNA into subunits Large and small subunits are exported to cytoplasm, where they bind an mRNA to form functional ribosome EM of nerve cell nucleolus
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This note was uploaded on 01/04/2012 for the course ANT 610C taught by Professor Johnaris during the Spring '10 term at University of Florida.

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2 cells_07_aris - Medical Cell and Tissue Biology, BMS...

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