29 hormones_07_web

29 hormones_07_web - Endocrine System: Production of...

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Endocrine System: Production of Hormones Cells of the endocrine system synthesize and secrete hormones into the circulation whereby they serve as chemical effectors to regulate a variety of cellular activities. There exist three classes of hormones synthesized by these cells: peptide, steroid, and amino acid derivatives.
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Peptide hormones translated by ribosomes at the rough endoplasmic reticulum, packaged in the Golgi apparatus, and transported to the cell surface via secretory vesicles Steroid hormones synthesized from cholesterol by enzymes present in mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum Indolamines (serotonin and melatonin) neurotransmitters synthesized from tryptophan Catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine) synthesized from tyrosine and packaged into secretory vesicles Thyroxine (T 4 ) and triiodothyronine (T 3 ) released upon the endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of iodothyroglobulin Hormones of the Endocrine System
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Objectives to examine the synthesis of peptide hormones, steroid hormones, catecholamines, and thyroxine to examine the modes of secretion of peptide hormones, steroid hormones, catecholamines, and thyroxine to understand how hormone production and secretion is regulated to appreciate how hormones promote a cellular response
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Peptide Hormones of the Pituitary Peptide hormones are synthesized on rough endoplasmic reticulum as preprohormones. After cleavage of the signal peptide, the prohormone is packaged in the Golgi apparatus. The prohormone is proteolytically cleaved to its active form in secretory vesicles. The mature hormone is secreted by a merocrine mechanism.
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Pars nervosa Pars distalis Pars intermedia Pars tuberalis Infundibulum Anterior lobe Posterior lobe A d e n o h y p s i Neurohypophysis Pituitary
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Kierszenbaum Fig. 18-2
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Pars nervosa Herring bodies: axon terminals with neurosecretory granules containing either oxytocin (paraventricular nuclei) or vasopressin/ADH (supraoptic nuclei) Pituicytes assist in the support of the axons.
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Pars distalis Basophils (ACTH, FSH, LH,TSH) Acidophils (GH, LTH)
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Peptide Hormones Growth hormone (GH) acidophils stimulates kidney and liver to secrete IGF-1, which stimulates bone growth Prolactin (PRL) acidophils promotes mammary gland growth Adrenocorticotropic basophils stimulates secretion of hormone (ACTH) glucocorticoids and gonadocorticoids Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) basophils stimulates follicular development and spermatogenesis Thyrotropin (TSH) basophils stimulates thyroid growth and secretion of thyroxines
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This note was uploaded on 01/04/2012 for the course ANT 610C taught by Professor Johnaris during the Spring '10 term at University of Florida.

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29 hormones_07_web - Endocrine System: Production of...

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