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31 femalereprosystemimod_2007_nxpowerlite_

31 femalereprosystemimod_2007_nxpowerlite_ - Female...

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Female Reproductive System I Discuss the histological organization of the ovaries, oviducts, and uterus and their functions Correlate hormonal events with changes in these organs during a 28 day menstrual cycle Dr. Kelly Selman 11/20/07
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Ovary Ross, Fig. 23.2 germinal epithelium
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Ovary (H&E)
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Cortex of Ovary Follicles Germinal epithelium Oocyte Follicle cells CT Follicle:
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Development of female germ cell (1n, 2C) (1n, 1C) Migrate from yolk sac to genital ridge Puberty 4-6 wk embryo 3-5 month fetus Meiosis begins. DNA synthesis occurs and 1 ° oocyte forms & arrests at prophase I (Mitosis) (2n, 4C) All oocytes arrested at prophase I All oocytes reside within follicles (2n, 2C) DNA synthesis PB ovum 2n,2C
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Each month 15-20 follicles begin to grow. Each follicle contains a primary oocyte (2n, 4C) that is arrested at prophase I of meiosis. Immediately prior to ovulation, there is a LH surge, one follicle has an oocyte that completes its first meiotic division (reductional), and this oocyte progresses to metaphase II, where it arrests as a secondary oocyte (1n, 2C). This secondary oocyte is then ovulated. If fertilization occurs, meiosis is completed (1n, 1C). Summary of monthly events within the ovary
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Atresia is the degeneration (apoptotic cell death) of any size oocyte or follicle and can occur anytime. 20 weeks gestation: 20 million germ cells Birth: ~ 400,000 follicles (with primary oocytes) Puberty: 10,000 follicles (with primary oocytes) Oocyte nucleus FC Atresia Only 400-500 oocytes ever ovulated Each month 15-20 follicles begin to grow (FSH- dependent process) and all follicles undergo atresia except 1, which typically ovulates one secondary oocyte.
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Oogenesis (Oogonia to fertilizable germ cell [secondary oocyte)
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Folliculogenesis 1. Primordial follicle 2. Primary follicle 3. Secondary (antral) follicle 4. Mature Graafian follicle All follicles contain primary oocytes (2n, 4C) arrested in prophase I of meiosis (until just before ovulation)
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Ovarian Cortex Follicle cells Primordial follicle Nucleus (GV) in 1 ° oocyte Primordial follicles (oocyte ~40 µm)
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Primary follicles Zona pellucida Follicle cells or Granulosa cells 1 ° oocyte in 1 ° follicle Theca ZP 2n,4C
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