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32 femalefertiliz2007modfinal_nxpowerlite_

32 femalefertiliz2007modfinal_nxpowerlite_ - Female...

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Female Reproduction II and Fertilization ALMOST THERE!!!!!! Dr. Kelly Selman MCTB 11/20/07
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Lobules Lactiferous duct Lactiferous sinus Branched glands that develop from the epidermis and lie within subcutaneous tissue (superficial fascia)
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Mammary glands have 15-20 lobes. Each lobe has its own Lactiferous duct that opens to the nipple via a sinus. Glands consist of: Lobes Lobules Duct system Intra lobular ducts Inter lobular ducts Lobar ducts ( Lactiferous ducts) 3 Physiological stages: Resting (nonpregnant) Proliferating (pregnancy) Lactating Lobule Lactiferous duct = Lobar duct (drains lobe) Lobe Lobule Lactiferous sinus
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Resting mammary gland Lobule Consists of ducts in a “fibroadipose” tissue Displays minor changes during 28 day cycle
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Myoepithelial cells Plasma cells Resting glands consist primarily of intralobular ducts (epithelial cells & myoepithelial cells)
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Late proliferating gland Interlobular duct Lobule (prolactin and placental lactogen)
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Plasma cells Myoepithelial cells Hard to distinguish intralobular ducts from alveoli What is function of plasma cells here? Late proliferating gland
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Osmium stained to demonstrate lipid secretions Lactating mammary gland
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Hormonal regulation PREGNANCY: Corpus luteum & placenta secrete estrogen and progesterone Estrogen : stimulates (lactiferous) duct development Progesterone : stimulates alveoli growth Other hormones from ovary (inhibin, activin), placenta, pituitary & adrenals involved LACTATION: Prolactin (adenohypophysis): stimulates secretion Oxytocin (neurohypophysis): effects myoepithelial cell contraction Other hormones from pituitary & adrenals involved
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Secretion in mammary gland alveolar cells Dimeric IgA made by plasma cells, transcytosed into lumen (passive immunity) Lipids released by Apocrine secretion Oxytocin Prolactin Merocrine secretion: Proteins (casein, a-lactalbumin, antibodies, etc.) Myoepithelial cell Prolactin stimulates milk production Oxytocin induces contraction of myoepithelial cells & milk release
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Minimal structural changes occur monthly Major changes occur during pregnancy EarlyPregnancy (2) Mid-Pregnancy (1) (3) Nulliparous (4) Lactation (5) After weaning
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Benign breast diseases There are several different types of benign breast diseases that effect the various components of the mammary glands (connective tissue, ducts and acini) Fibrocystic breast disease is the most common non- malignant disease (20-50 yr old females) Fluid filled cysts Fibrosis
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Breast cancer There are several different types of breast cancers; about 80% arise in the epithelial linings of the lactiferous ducts.
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