324Lecture2 cell - – Proteolytic Enzymes – Ubiquitin...

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Histology The Cell
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Cell Organization Cytoplasm 1) membranes 2) organelles 3) inclusions 4) cytosol Nucleus
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The Cytoplasm Plasma Membrane (plasmalemma) 7 – 10 nm thick “limiting membrane” 100,000x
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Plasma Membrane
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Plasma Membrane forms the plasma membrane as well as membrane bound organelles typical of eukaryote cells. also forms exvaginations as microscopic fingers on many cells as microvilli (brush borders) semipermeable to intra- and extracellular substances.
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Integral Membrane Proteins
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Endocytosis/ Exocytosis
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Organelles (functional internal structures within the cell) 1. Mitochondrion
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Organelles Ribosomes Electron dense 20 to 30 nm Protein and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Polyribosomes (polysomes) on mRNA In cytosol, mitochondrial matrix, ER (rough)
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Organelles Endoplasmic Reticulum
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Organelles Golgi Complex
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Organelles Lysosomes Hydrolytic enzymes Acidic pH 0.05 to 0.5 μ m Proteosomes
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Unformatted text preview: – Proteolytic Enzymes – Ubiquitin Tagged Prot. • Peroxisomes – Catalase – Oxidation of lipids Cytoskeleton • Microtubules α and β Tubulin (~50 kDa) – 24 nm diameter – Hollow core – Flagella, cilia, centrioles, mitotic spindle Cytoskeleton Cytoskeleton • Actin- 5 to 7 nm in diameter 60,000x Other Cytoplasm • inclusions - non-functional storage bodies in the cell, sugar, lipids, pigments; e.g. glycogen granules • cytosol - liquid of cell, mostly water, salts, especially K + , PO 4 , and amino acids. Nucleus • “Operational center” of the cell. • Operates by implementing the genetic code resulting in protein production: – usually 1 per cell. Components: a) double membrane - many pores b) DNA - genetic code of nucleotide units. c) nucleolus - RNA d) nucleoplasm Nucleus Nucleus Nuclear Envelope Mitosis...
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