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Unformatted text preview: D’s: What-When-Significance Contending Voices: Bartolome de Las Casas: • Who: Catholic friar arrived in the West Indies in 1502, sought passage to the Indies to make his fortune, heard the call of priesthood, increasingly troubled by the cruelty of many Spaniards toward the Indians, denounced the system by which his countrymen held many native people and renounced his own grant of Indian laborers, made it his life’s work to defend the Indians and challenge the Spaniards’ treatment of them, Hernan Cortes = “tyrant” • When: first half of the 1500s • Significance: attacks conversion by conquest, “the one and only method of teaching men the true religion was by persuading the understanding through reasons, and by gently attracting or exhorting the will,” people can be persuaded by rational thought and civil convincing “because of his freedom of choice,” will reject force, Spaniards are being greedy, have lost sight of their true mission, the ends do not justify the means, no good can come of evil approaches Bacon’s Manifesto: • What: unsuccessful revolt led by planter Nathaniel Bacon against Virginia governor William Berkeley’s administration because it had failed to protect settlers from Indian raids, to the frontiersmen all Indians were bad: violence and holding lands Englishmen could put to better use, took matters into their own hands, Berkeley had favorites, was too forgiving of “hostile” Indians, wanted to dominate trade, Berkeley declared them rebels, raised about 1,300 volunteers, poor white farmers against rich white elites, thought Berkeley’s followers were unqualified for the power and privileges they enjoyed, Bacon burned Jamestown to the ground, Berkeley forced to flee, Charles II sent a fleet of ships to put down the rebellion • When: 1676 • Significance: racial lines are hardening, participation in the government was beyond the reach of former indentured servants, represented the danger of exploitation of many and aggrandizement by the few, dangers of relying on laborers who could turn into unruly neighbors, conflicts among white colonists could be defused by rallying them against others, hatred of an “inferior” race was a powerful force to unite whites and subdue social discontent, VA’s planter elite had learned how to unite freemen of all ranks against those at the bottom of society and thereby dampen resentment against those at the top, taught the ruling class how to keep poor whites and black slaves in their place “New Lights”: • What: followers of the Great Awakening, Davenport, emphasized individual/personal experiences, inclusive conversions, challenged established Church and ministers, emphasized piety over good works, proximity to God over knowledge • When: The Great Awakening, 1730s and 1740s • Significance: Old Lights were threatened because tradition was challenged, disregarded reason (anti-Enlightenment), out of control, challenged authority, denounced minister’s Christianity, ** once you...
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