P Lec Notes 101410 - Psych Lecture Notes Language and...

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Psych Lecture Notes 10/14/10 Language and Thought -Language: system of symbols, sounds, meanings, and rules of combination that allow for communication among humans -Benjamin Whorf: Linguistic relativity – one's language determines one's thoughts -Structure of Language -Phonemes: smallest units of sounds which can be distinguished; change in sound can alter meaning -”c” at or “b” at Initial Phonemes -b “it” t or b “a” t Middle Phonemes -Morphemes: smallest units of meaning in language; phrases made up of morphemes -Semantics: the study of the meaning of words/combinations/sentences -Syntax: the structure of a language, underlying rules of order/function -Gleason Study: language rules are generative -Overregularizations: grammatical rules incorrectly generalized to “exception” cases Language Acquisition Device: (Chomsky) -Humans possess an inborn language mechanism. -Hard-wired to sort input from 20-80 phonemes. -Lose by 12 months. -Surface structure: particular words used -Deep structure: notion of nouns, verbs, commands -Chomsky believes languages differ only in surface structure -Expressive (productive) Language: the ability to produce language -Receptive Language: the ability to comprehend, process and integrate the meaning of language -Children usually have a greater capacity for receptive speech -Stages in Language Development -Crying -Cooing: vowel like noises -Babbling: consonant/vowel: ba ba; da da -First Words -Holophrases: simple word conveys meaning -Overextensions – ex) going to the zoo. Calling everything “doggy” -Telegraphic Speech: “Content” word sentences -By age 6 learn average of 15 words per day, vocabulary of 8,000-14,000 words -Nonverbal communication: -Vocal intonation: stress, pitch & volume -Body language: crossed arms, sitting up -Gestures -Physical Distance -Facial Expressions -Touch -Bi-lingualism: -Some question about language acquisition, but often see similar cumulative vocabulary -Most research does not show cognitive limitations -A second language is learned best when younger at a “sensitive period” for a language development -Critical Periods in Language Development -Case study of Genie; there does appear to be some sensitive/critical period for language
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development skills -Interactionist theory of language development: -both biology and experience make important contributions to language development -Thought: an extension of perception and memory. Mental representations are formed, recalled and manipulated -Concepts and Categories: Objects are classified on the basis of their properties
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  • Fall '08
  • Schreier
  • Intelligence Tests, Intelligence quotient, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, language acquisition device, inborn language mechanism

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P Lec Notes 101410 - Psych Lecture Notes Language and...

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