P Lec Notes 111810 - Psych Lecture Notes 11/18/10 -Stress...

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Psych Lecture Notes 11/18/10 -Stress is also correlated with higher incidences of child abuse -Physical Abuse: non-accidental physical attack on or injury to children by individuals caring for themselves -Emotional Abuse: pattern of behavior that impairs a child's emotional development of self- worth -Child Neglect: absence of adequate social, emotional, and physical care -Fatalities: An estimated 1,760 children died as victims of abuse or neglect according to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. 42% of the victims were younger than 1 and 75% were younger than 4 years old. (2007 Data) -One or both parents were identified as the perpetrators in 70% of the cases. In 27% mothers were the sole perpetrator. -Risk Factors related to stress and abuse: -Child factors: prematuirity, disabilities, difficult temperament, childhood trauma -Parental factors: low frustration tolerance, parental conflict, unrealistic developmental expectations, look to child as source of love and support, substance abuse -Community factors: lack of social supports and social services, poor economy, acceptance of violence and failure to value children -Protective Factors related to stress and abuse -Child factors: easy temperament, outside interests andactivites, above average intelligence, good social skills -Parental factors: secure attachment, social supports, household rules and structure, education -Community factors: good schools, availability of mentors and positive role models, religious faith participation -Developmental Implications of Abuse: -Social: children/teachers rate more negatively, less popular, more withdrawn -Emotional: lower self-concept, more behavioral problems – restlessness, hyperactivity, antisocial -Cognitive: perform lower on IQ and achievement tests, lower readiness to learn in school -Cycle of Violence: Findings that those who are abused are at a greater risk for abusing -Social Learning Theory: violent, aggressive children have learned those behaviors from their parents -Biological/Genetic Theory: aggressiveness is a genetic characteristic “passed down” by parents -Interaction Theory: aggressive predisposition combined with an aggressive environment creates a cycle of violence -Beraking the Cycle of Violence: What we can do to help -Promote cultural attitudes against using violence -Train children with non-violent conflict resolution -Train parents in healthy parenting techniques -Aging and Stress (Hunter and Gillen, 2009) -Declining Health -Loss of Family and Friendship -Employment and Financial Problems
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P Lec Notes 111810 - Psych Lecture Notes 11/18/10 -Stress...

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