Psych Study Guide - Chapter3:TheSelf...

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Chapter 3: The Self The 4 aspects that make up the social self: Self-concept- The set of beliefs and perceptions about oneself. Entails  recognition of oneself as a distinct entity. Made up of cognitive molecules,  or “self schemas.” Helps determine how we behave. Culture and the self- Independent vs. interdependent self. Western  cultures- independent view, eastern, African, and Latin- interdependent.  Americans value uniqueness. Gender and the self- Women: relational interdependence, men: collective  interdependence. Sex difference because of social roles explanation  (environment) and evolutionary explanation (nurture). Self-Regulation- self-enhancement, ironic effects of self-regulation. Self- regulation as a limited resource- ego depletion. The Self-reference effect- the tendency for information related to the self be  more readily processed and remembered than other types of information.  Occurs when something applies to the self. Cocktail Party Phenomenon- the ability to pick a personally relevant stimulus  (e.g. your name) out of a complex environment. Sources of stability of the self:  Biological underpinnings of traits Selective memory Selective attention Interpretation of past events Resist counter schematic People are schematic on dimensions that are: Important to them On which they think of themselves as the extreme And which they are certain the opposite is not true The biases associated with the social comparison theory are: Unrealistically positive views about the self- they tend to believe that  positive personality traits describe themselves better than negative traits.
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Exaggerated perceptions of control- people think they can control events  that they in fact can’t influence Optimism- the sense that the future offers the promise of happiness and  success. Two types of social comparison:  Upward social comparison- comparing ourselves to people who are better  than we are on particular trait or ability, information. Downward social comparison- defensive tendencies to compare ourselves  with others who are worse off than we are, self-enhancement. Self-regulation as a limited resource- ego depletion. You can improve your capacity to self-regulate by: Practice small self-regulatory task and stick to it. Exercising self-discipline. Sleep and rest. Don’t try this at night. Boost your positive mood.
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Psych Study Guide - Chapter3:TheSelf...

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