exam 2 - Augustine of Hippo Berber philosopher...

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Unformatted text preview: Augustine of Hippo Berber philosopher & theologian Important figure in development of Western Christianity he framed the concepts of original sin and just war developed concept of the Church as a spiritual City of God when Roman empire began to fall apart (community that worshipped god) preached strict morals on sexual behavior protestants consider him theological father of reformation; taught salvation and divine grace Means Latin church father Hadrian adopted son of Trajan (distant Spanish relative)- ruled Rome 117-138 ad with generous economic policy o cancelled debts of all citizens o reduced taxes o established fair minimum prices in years of bad harvest- policy was to maintain peace empire and strengthen defenses- revolt of Jews in jerusalem- 3 rd of the so-called Five Good Emporers Plebians Romans with no priveledges at birth - own popular assembly elected spokesmen (tribunes)- tribunes guarded their interested, protected against injustice- won an important series of concessions from aristocracy o victory in 287 bc with passing of Hortensian Law (made decisions of plebian assembly binding on Senate & Roman ppl) o established Twelve Tables, but beforehand werent allowed to know any laws, but were still punished for breaking them Punic Wars series of 3 wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 bc)- main cause was different interests between Carthaginin Empire & Roman republic- at start of 1 st , Carthage was dominant in Western Mediterranean while Rome had no navy- by end of 3 rd , Rome conquered Carthages empire and became most powerful state in W. Med Gaius Marius was a spokesman for popular interests, then elected tribune in 119 bc, served in administration of Spain- 108 bc: ran for consulship & campaigned to put an end to African conflict o won, enlisted a volunteer army from proletariat at Rome and poor o reorganized army into legions, then cohorts o repeatedly won elections as consul to reinforce military command- poor political judgement bc only interest was in democratic interests Twelve Tables legal code established by plebians (451 bc)- board of 10 commissioners set up to study laws of other states- engraved on 12 bonze tablets in the Forum- caesar based new Civil Law on these- principle was equity and fairness to all- centerpiece of the constitution of the Roman Republic Dido founder & 1 st queen of Cathage (814)- known from Virgil in Aeneid o married to Sychaeus, but under a spell, falls in love with Aeneus o A leaves her to find a new city o She commits suicide o Aeneus & Dido couldnt have lived at same time- means Wanderer Rubicon border between Italy & Istanbul river, 29 km long- crossing it means to pass a point of no return- refers to Caesars 49 BC crossing with army...
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exam 2 - Augustine of Hippo Berber philosopher...

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