final exam - SOCIALINFLUENCE Eye contact Mehrabian Williams...

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SOCIAL INFLUENCE Eye contact Mehrabian & Williams – subjects deliver a speech (video-taped) ½ were told to inform, ½ were told to persuade when told to persuace, the subjects exhibited more eye contact feeling of connection to the audience create pseudo-interpersonal relationship televangelists look directly into camera people look less when told to inform sex differences male speaker – moderate gaze works best female speaker – higher amount of gaze is best Kleinke – people are more likely to return lost money when eye contact used Experimented in a phone booth When a person leaves the phone booth, the next person will be likely to give them their change back if they had made eye contact ? Distance Milgram’s administer shocks experiment Link between teacher and learner (in the other room) the distance was manipulated: 12-15 ft or 1 ft between them power of obedience
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agentic state – teacher described self as agent of the experiment (they’re just doing what the researchers asked) Results: the closer the experimenter was to the teacher, the higher (more) shocks were given Baron & Bell – ask others to volunteer time Less distance, less agreed Distance was manipulated by zones (18” or 4 ft) Students set up a table to sample meats and cheeses outside the deli Varied whether they stood behind or in front of the table More people took samples when the students were in front of table Touch Favors for strangers – petition signing When a person asking for signatures gives a quick touch (hand on shoulder) they get a positive responses Witcher – child admitted for surgery, create relationship pre-surgery for support Experimental: nurses touch patient on arm for 1 min pre-surgery Control: nurses don’t touch the patient Touch makes a difference: stress levels, blood pressure These decrease for females when touched These increase for males when touched (feel less dominant) Facial expressions – know research findings
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Smiling is linked the most to persuasion For an interview, too much smiling is bad – must be appropriate Restarant settings Servers who smile more get more tips Student researched at Applebees Body posture and gestures Mehrabian & Williams Show pictures of speakers in open/closed positions; asked to evaluate Rated more credible/favorable when open More opinion change Encoding research Subjects told to me highly persuasive, moderate, or told nothing When told to be highly persuasive: upright posture, more head nods, more hand gestures (animated), energetic Men can do well with a relaxed posture Women should be more upright Political applications Bush rally – Miami 1988 Goals of the rally
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make participants feel special get good media coverage protection and safety manipulations to reach the goals why personal connection to Miami (Schuller – publicist?) easy to sell Bush’s campaign (OH big state)
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