exam 1 notes - Research: systematically observing and...

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Research: systematically observing and retaining info to come to a conclusion 4 goals of research: Description – we like to describe phenomenon Explanation – want to explain a series of events and connect them Causality – we like to know cause and effect, changes interpretation and gives reason for something Predictability – cause and effect can determine predictions for next time 3 Major Perspectives/Paradigms Social scientific research Humanities (aka interpretive) Critical or cultural studies research Religion, experience, intuition, authority, customs, all generate knowledge = knowledge generation Meta-theoretical considerations Ontology: the nature of reality, subjective/objective views Epistemology: the nature of knowledge Axiology: the nature of values
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Quantitative: data is numbers/numerical, researcher and participant are independent, objective view of reality, deductive Qualitative: date is non-numerical, researcher and participant are interdependent, subjective view of reality, inductive Deductive vs. Inductive Research - two sides of the same point Deductive: theories – predictions – observations – empirical generalizations (then repeat) Inductive: starts at observations Difference between hypothesis and research question is that a hypothesis a declarative statement forming an opinion and trying to figure something out, while a research question is just a question *don’t ever say PROVE because knowledge is changing constantly Social scientific research vs. applied research Basic research vs. Applied research -why and how -why and how not enough -theoretical -changes Hard to be applied research without basic. Searching for Information Step 1: identify topic Step 2: clarify Research Question and key research terms Step 3: locate information Step 4: organize sources/info Step 5: cite information – APA!! Quiz Thursday: be able to generate research question and hypothesis
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Research Ethics Steps a researcher takes to protect himself and participants Tuskegee Participants lied to Not given proper treatment IRB – Institutional Review Board Protective mechanism for researcher and participants Outline in detail what your plan is What is your intent Who is your sample What risks may be involved How long should it take Processes Exempt – low risk Expedited – medium risk Full – high risk When using deception, must debrief participants Overly sensitive topics (rape, assault, drug use) Written or oral consent Oral
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Illiterate population Under age of 18, need guardian and child consent Blind, disabled Consent should be written at a 7 th -8 th grade reading level Special Ethical Issues for Research Data falsification – change data, change hypothesis Data sharing – important to share accurate data Plagiarism – steal others’ work/ideas Self-plagiarism – use own same writings without changes Authorship credit – write, edit, collect, analysis Variables and Measurement Variable vs Constant Variable – changes (temperature, weight)
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This note was uploaded on 01/04/2012 for the course COM 262 taught by Professor Staff during the Summer '08 term at Miami University.

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exam 1 notes - Research: systematically observing and...

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