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ch 4 - CH 4 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY CHILDHOOD Body...

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CH 4: PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN INFANCY & CHILDHOOD Body Growth Growth is intense during 1 st 2 years Transition from infancy to childhood occurs within 1 st 2 years Crawl to walk By 5 months – doubled birth weight By 1 year – tripled birth weight By 2 years – quadrupled birth weight 9 mo – body fat increases at first, then slims down Infant regulates own body temperature Sex differences Girls are shorter & lighter Girls have higher body fat % Cephalocaudal trend Head is large; grows more rapidly Proximodistal trend Growth from center of the body Arms/legs grow faster than hands/feet Skeletal Growth In the womb, skeleton is cartilage
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Hardens during infancy; becomes bone Skeletal age Measure of bone development Determines how old/mature a child is Girls more ahead than boys Girls reach height quicker than boys Girls are lighter and shorter The Neuron At birth, brain is near full size, which is why babies have large heads Brain develops at quick pace during childhood Neuron – nerve cells store/transmit info Brain development 100-200 billion neurons at birth Neurons communication through neurotransmitter chemicals When stimulated a lot, grow connections between one another Neurons can die if not stimulated
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