ch 11 - CH 11: PHYSICAL & COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN...

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Adolescence – ages 12 to end of teens Puberty: the transition Hormonal changes Ages 8-9: growth hormones and thyrozine Physical growth Leads to increase in body size and maturing skeleton Boys: testes release androgen testosterone Muscle growth Hair on body and face Girls: estrogens and adrenal androgens Reach puberty 2 years earlier than boys Estrogen: Maturation of breasts, uterus, vagina Take on feminine proportions (curvy) Increases body fat Causes menstruation to begin Adrenal Androgens: growth spurt Underarm and pubic hair Rapid gain in weight and height 10-11” in height
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Girls reach height by 16, boys by 17 ½ 50-75 lbs in weight Girls gain fat at 8, boys add muscle at 8 Sexual Maturation Primary sex characteristics Reproductive organs Secondary sex characteristics Visible features – facial hair, breasts Take about 4 years to develop Female maturity: menarche Growth spurt and budding of the breasts Menarche – 1 st menstruation Age 12 ½ in US Europe 13 Pubic hair and breast development completed Underarm hair appears Menstruate at peak of growth spurt Childbirth purposes Male maturity: spermarche Testes enlarge Changes in scrotum
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Develop pubic hair Penis enlarges Growth spurt peaks around 14 Facial and body hair Spermarche – 1 st ejaculation, 13 ½ years Psychological impact of puberty Reactions Girls – positive and negative reactions to 1 st period Dependent on family influences; what they know Feel more positive when they know what to expect Boys – mixed feelings Those better prepared, feel more positive Less likely to talk about this with boys – makes them uncomfortable Less support for physical changes during puberty Moodiness No relation between hormones and mood Caused by problems with parents, romantic relationships, social network Experience more negative emotions when negative things happen More extreme than adult Compared with adults, their moods shift more
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Parent-child relationships Independence, frustration Conflict peaks in adolescence Happens regardless of US society Parent-daughter relationships Conflicts are more extreme, intense
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ch 11 - CH 11: PHYSICAL & COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IN...

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