final study guide - WOMEN STUDIES 240 STUDY GUIDE...

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WOMEN STUDIES 240 STUDY GUIDE MOTHERHOOD Ebony Sandusky Institution of motherhood : genetic, development, lactation, nurture/care for children, role in community. Ideologies, traditions, and laws that influence how a woman should mother. (Muniz) Hegemonic motherhood: creates deviancy discourse. white, middle class, heterosexual, monogamous couple. Father works outside the home, and mother works inside = “domestic sphere” Marginalization : social process of becoming unimportant. Denial of degrees of social/political power. “the other”- teen mother, disabled mother, immigrant mother Motherhood is gendered: Entwined with femininity; important to women’s identity Social construction of motherhood: Birthing a child is biological, and only women can do it. once baby is born, only mother can provide milk. Pronatalism encourages child-bearing after men return from WWI. Motherhood Mandate: Pressure on women to have children and prescription on how to be a good mother. Assumes there is something wrong with women if they choose not to have children. New Momism : romanticized, yet demanding (Douglas) Set of ideals, norms and practices. High perfectionist standards of mothers’ involvement in children’s lives. Combination of childrearing and professionalism. Problems: women cannot perfectly balance careers & family. It can only be done by those w/ significant economic resources (Douglas) High standars may lead to increased usage of anti-depressants to deal with “failure” (Metzel) Deviancy discourses EX: welfare queen WOMEN AND WORK Elizabeth Cole Pay gap: man $1 to woman .70 Glass ceiling: Bose & Whaley. artificial barriers based on attitude/organization/ discrimination that prevents qualified females from advancing upward Gendered division of labor
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Reproductive labor: tasks that are necessary to maintain existing life and reproduce the next generation (Duffy) Women mostly responsible for this even when working outside the home. “second shift” (Hochschild) Dirtywork is for black (wo)men Gender schemas at work: non-conscious hypothesis about gender that affect our expectations, evaluations and performance. Favor men, leading them to be overrated. Small (dis)advantages build up Motherhood penalty : (maternal wall) women are disadvantaged at work because being a caregiver is devalued. Motherhood is a master status: negatively biases perceptions of competence & suitability for authority. Bias results bc qualities of good mother & good worker are at odds… Both ideals require 24/7 availability. Social class: affects life chances w/ family, education, workplace, politics. Income- how much $$$ you make
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This note was uploaded on 01/05/2012 for the course WOMENSTD 240 taught by Professor Cortera during the Winter '07 term at University of Michigan.

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final study guide - WOMEN STUDIES 240 STUDY GUIDE...

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