midterm 1 - Women Studies 240 Midterm Due 2/20/2009...

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Women Studies 240 Midterm Due 2/20/2009 Professor Cole, GSI Meg Ahern
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Part I: Identifications At the University of Iowa in Kinnick Stadium, the visiting team’s locker room has been covered with pink: pink lockers, pink carpet, pink walls, sinks, showers, and even pink urinals. It was the idea of Hayden Fry, a former Iowa football coach. He studied in psychology that pink gave a calming and passive effect on people. (Opponents) Thus, he wanted his opponents to feel tranquil and not ready for the aggressive game. The use of pink in this situation demeans women. An Iowa law professor, Erin Buzuvis stated, “The pink locker room is a subtle way of painting the words ‘sissy’ or ‘girlie man’ on the walls.” (Jenkins) To feminize something can be interpreted as weakening something. Pink is associated with females, and it is degrading that Iowa uses it as a weapon to tease the opposing teams. (Cole, Understanding Gender) Sojourner Truth was a strong, radical abolitionist fighting for black women. Her “Ain’t I a Woman” speech at the Women’s Rights Convention in 1851 questioned the treatment of white women versus the treatment of black women. For example, she stated, “That man over there says that women need to be helped into carriages, and lifted over ditches, and to have the best place everywhere. Nobody helps me any best place. And ain’t I a women ?” (Cole, How Diversity Complicates Gender) As a feminist, she believed that all women should be cared for in equal ways, and that all mothers should be honored and protected. Hegemonic femininity is the idea that gender is socially constructed through different experiences and beliefs. There are five elements that are dominant in femininity: beauty, demeanor, marriage and family arrangements, sexuality, and race. Hegemonic ideas are normative, and everyone is expected to follow this pattern of heterosexuality. Dominant groups gain and keep their power by persuading subordinated people that beliefs that favor the ruling group are natural or “common sense.” (Cole, Intersectionality)
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In the 19 th century, romantic friendships between two women were also known as Boston marriages . These women lived with each other instead of marrying a male, and it was an emotionally intense relationship. Some of these relationships may have included sex, but this wasn’t considered a deviant act. (Rupp, p. 391) It was assumed that women were nonsexual and “proper”, thus women were assumed to have little or no sex drive. However, many of these sexual relationships were kept secret, and most people assumed the relationships were platonic. (Cole, What Causes Heterosexuality) Wedding porn is the entirety of planning a wedding down to the nitty-gritty and all the emotional excitement that comes along with it. “They inform brides-to-be about everything they could possibly need to know for the ceremony: the best lipstick for the wedding photos, how to style an updo, which bouquet suits an allergy-prone bride, where to buy a gold leaf fondant cake,
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This note was uploaded on 01/05/2012 for the course WOMENSTD 240 taught by Professor Cortera during the Winter '07 term at University of Michigan.

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midterm 1 - Women Studies 240 Midterm Due 2/20/2009...

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