Lab 7 st - Lab 7 Mitosis and meiosis Reproduction Sexual...

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Lab 7 Mitosis and meiosis
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Reproduction Sexual Gametes : one from the mother one from the father (haploid) Gametes combine in random way Variability Meiosis in germ cells Asexual Daughter cell identical to parental cells (diploid) Mitosis in somatic cells
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Basic structures chromosomes: made of chromatin chromatin: 40% DNA and 60% protein nucleosome: DNA is coiled around eight histone proteins heterochromatin: very condensed chromatin – never expressed Euchromatin: DNA condensed only during cell division Somatic cells: diploid Gametes: haploid
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Chromosomes
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Cell cycle (Human cells: 24 hours) Interphase (23h) G1, S, G2 Mitosis Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Meiosis Prophase I Metaphase I Anaphase I Telophase I Prophase II Metaphase II Anaphase II Telophase II cytokinesi s
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Cell cycle G phase: g ap S phase: s ynthesis Checkpoints: G1/S G2/M
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Chromosomes condense – chromatids are visible Nuclear envelope disappears Chromosomes are arranged in the middle (equator) of the spindle apparatus. Spindle fibers shortened pulling chromatids towards the pole The spindle apparatus disappears. Nuclei are reformed and chromosomes unwind. MITOSI S
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Chromosome structure Sister chromatids are identical They are held together in the centromere by cohesion proteins
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CYTOKINESIS Cytokinesis is the division of
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