Ike ends Korean War

Ike ends Korean War - Ike ends Korean War? ends • Adopted...

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Unformatted text preview: Ike ends Korean War? ends • Adopted a get-tough policy toward the communists in Korea • He would use any force necessary (including the use of nuclear weapons) to bring the war to an end unless peace negotiations began to move forward the • Suggested that he would "unleash" the Nationalist Chinese forces on Taiwan against communist China against Stalin is Dead • Brought what appeared to be significant changes in Soviet international policy • Stalin’s successors began calling for negotiations to settle East-West differences and to rein in the arms race and • Nikita Khrushchev established himself as the main leader in the Kremlin in 1955 • “peaceful coexistence” “peaceful War is over… again. War • The Chinese, exhausted by more than two years of war, finally agreed to terms and an armistice was signed on July 27, 1953. and Forgotten war • • • • • • The United States suffered over 50,000 casualties in this "forgotten war” Nearly $70 billion was spent Nearly Ike goes forward Ike Strengthen established programs Social Security Launch important new ones Interstate Highway System in 1956 Foreign policy • • IKE Used the CIA secret interventions to overthrow unfriendly governments or protect reliable antiCommunist leaders whose power was threatened • Iran • Guatemala Guatemala • • • • • • Indonesia French Indo China is back! France attempted to reassert itself in the region But the Viet Minh were a problem an organization of Communist Vietnamese nationalists Ho Chi Minh Ho During WW2, we had supported the Viet Minh in resistance against the Japanese We are Vietnam! We • Ho — as president — declared independence for the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Vietnam. • Before the end of September, a force of British, French and Indians, restored French control. • Bitter fighting ensued • Surrounded the French at Dien Bien Phu Sink or Swim with President Diem • Geneva Conference • Elections in 1956 • N-Ho Chi Minh • S-Diem S-Diem • French argued against that Diem was "not only incapable but mad" French • CIA-No elections Election of 1956 • • • • • • • • R-Ike 2 heart attacks D-Stevenson You need a rest! Domestic affairs-Sherman Adams, Chief of Staff affairs Foreign policy-Secretary of State John Foster Dulles Increased military budget “New Look” Special emphasis on bigger and better planes Civil Rights • Brown vs. Topeka • racially segregated schools were unconstitutional • Ike never endorsed the Supreme Court’s ruling in 1954 that racially segregated schools were unconstitutional schools • Did not have any timetable in connection with this decision Civil Rights Rosa Parks • Refused to give up her seat on a city bus to a white passenger Refused • Boycott of municipal bus lines in Montgomery, Alabama New leader is born! • • • • MLK, Jr. New preacher in town Led the boycott for 13 months December 5, 1955-December 20, 1956 Browder v. Gayle • Nov. 13, 1956 With no dissent, the U.S. Supreme Court upholds the Montgomery federal court’s Browder v. Gayle decision striking down Alabama’s bus segregation laws. Browder Bus 2857 Bus Henry Ford Museum Little Rock Little Labor • AFL-CIO • Combination of the two groups • Under Bill Meany • Senate Select Committee on Improper Activities-Racket Committee • Driving force-Robert Kennedy • into corruption in the trade union • "The union had been 'mobbed up,' quietly infiltrated by gangsters who saw the Teamsters' $250 million pension fund as a honey pot" • Jimmy Hoffa Sputnik -Beep, Beep, Beep... • First artificial satellite • Size of a basketball • Weighed only 183 pounds • Took about 98 minutes to orbit the Earth America’s reaction • • NASA created School curriculums with an emphasis on science and mathematics were quickly established to prepare students for the challenges ahead established • Senator Lyndon Johnson Senator • "Soon, they will be dropping bombs on us from space like kids dropping rocks onto cars from freeway overpasses.” onto National Defense Education Act • Provide hundreds of millions of dollars in student loans, scholarships, fellowships, and the purchase of scientific equipment for schools fellowships, • Support was expanded for the National Science Foundation • Advanced Research Projects Agency was created. • • Let’s talk peace? Russia had initiated the Warsaw Pact NATO of the Eastern European countries with Russia • Khrushchev came to America • • Nixon goes to Russia July 1959 to open a U.S. exhibition in Moscow July Escorted Khrushchev through a model U.S. kitchen “Kitchen Debates” • In front of the television cameras, Khrushchev then found himself in a debate with Nixon over the relative merits of the United States and Communist systems. Nixon • Later broadcast on television in both the USSR and the United States Peace talks in June, 1960? • U.S. had flown numerous 'successful' spy missions over and around the U.S.S.R • On May 1, 1960, a U-2 spy plane piloted by Francis Gary Powers was brought down near Svedlovsk down • “the airplane was on a joint NASA - U.S. Air Force air weather service mission in Turkey” Turkey” What a mess! • Disrupted the peace process already in progress between Eisenhower and Khrushchev Khrushchev • Khrushchev openly questioned the intent of the United States in the peace process • Called it off • Powers was sentenced to ten years in prison, but was released in 1962 in exchange for convicted Soviet spy Rudolph Abel. Egypt Egypt • • • • READ Nasser and the Suez Canal Eisenhower Doctrine US will send military aid and if necessary troops to help counter communist thrust into the Middle East into Cuba • New leader- Fidel Castro • United States was quick to recognize the new government. United • • Castro came to the White House Ike did not see him because he was playing golf. Vice President Nixon • Anticipated an uneventful tour of South America • Unprepared for the vehemence of the anti-American demonstrations South America Reacts • Peru • Blocked from visiting San Marcos University by a crowd of demonstrators chanting "Go Home Nixon!“ chanting • • • Venezuela spat at him as he left his plane. Caracas-mob surrounded his car and began rocking it back and forth, trying to turn it over and chanting "Death to Nixon." turn Who hates US the Most? • • • • • Vietnam Russia • • R-Richard Nixon D-John Kennedy New to politics Senator Wealthy CATHOLIC • • • • Latin America Africa Our Allies Election of 1960 Televised Debates • First in American History • Combination of what you were saying and HOW you looked on TV • In their first debate Kennedy came off the winner on TV (not to those who heard in on the radio) VERY CLOSE RACE VERY AMERICA in the 50’s • • Population: 151,684,000 Population: Life expectancy: women 71.1, men 65.6 • • • • Average salary: $2,992 Average Labor force male/female: 5/2 Labor • • • • Hamburger Hamburger 15-18 cents and 6 for a dollar Fries Fries 10 and 20 cents • • 1955-McDonald's menu: 1955-McDonald's hamburger 15, fries 10, coke 10 and 15, coffee 10 hamburger Cost of a loaf of bread: $0.14 Bomb shelter plans, like the government pamphlet You Can Survive, become Bomb You widely available Notes on Prices Notes • Coke in 1956 • 10 and 15 cents • Gallon of gas 1956 • 23 cents per gal • Movie 1956 Movie • about 50 cents • The drive- in movie The • carload 1 dollar • Glass of milk Glass • about 15 cents A time for moving! time • • • • • • • • • • • • To different areas of USA South and West To the suburbs 18 million to be exact! People could afford single family dwellings Sense of family Community Race Inner city Puerto Ricans and Blacks SUBURBS DEPENDED ON THE CAR!!!! A time for “citification” Rural America • • • • • • • • • • Paved roads Electricity Agricultural colleges expanded their curriculum and changed their name A time for growth We are booming! 150,000,000 Babies Immigrants Hawaii and Alaska Strategic location Cold War A time for prosperity • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Based on consumer demand We wanted everything new!!!!! We Based on heavy defense spending $40 billion Was not shared by the farmer or older industries A time for science and medicine Jonas Salk-Polio vaccine Erythromycin ENIAC A time for fads Blue jeans Poodle skirts Flat top hair Pony tails Silly Putty Hoola hoops Coon skin caps A time for leisure Because of automation in industry and labor-saving devices at home Because of So we… Went to school More money • • • • • • • GI Bill Family vacations Sports Television A time for family vacations Travel Car Culture Trailer Parks A time for sports • • Baseball Yogi Berra,1B Stan Musial, 2B Jackie Robinson, Willie Mays, Mickey Mantle, Duke Snider, Frank Robinson, Henry 2B Aaron Aaron • Basketball • Bob Cousy • Golf • Arnold Palmer A time for television • Ideal family, the ideal schools and neighborhoods • White, middle class, suburban • Sitcoms • The Honeymooners • I Love Lucy • Ozzie and Harriet • Father Knows Best • Historical shows • “You are There” “You A time for conservatives time • • • • • • • • Addition of the phrase “under God" to the Pledge of Allegiance Clothing Gender roles were strongly held Families worked together, played together and vacationed together Families A time for weirdoes time Beats or Beatniks Western or Eastern coast Centered in the West Village, the Lower East Side Centered Against the conformists • Painters, writers, musicians and curious spectators colonized the ethnic restaurants, coffee shops, saloons and cheap "cold water" tenements. A time for MUSIC! time • Rock and Roll • Bill Haley • • Jerry Lee Lewis Buddy Holly A time for Elvis • The Ed Sullivan Show- Sullivan instructed the camera operators to shoot the The Sullivan picture from the waist up only. picture • The Steve Allen Show- Presley appeared in a tuxedo and serenaded a basset hound The Presley with his hit "You Ain't Nothing But a Hound Dog." A time to read time • • Dr Benjamin Spock Baby and Child Care • • • Michael Harrington The Other America 1/5 of Americans live below the poverty line 1/5 ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/05/2012 for the course HIST 1302 taught by Professor Sarabostelmann during the Fall '11 term at Collins.

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