The war is ove2r

The war is ove2r - The war is over! Now what do we do?...

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Unformatted text preview: The war is over! Now what do we do? Rebuild Europe • • • • • • • 1943 –United Nations Reconstruction Finance Cooperation -money given to Greece Was not enough to rebuild the water system in Athens CARE DP’s Displaced persons Everyone looked to Britain • In 1947, Great Britain announced it could no longer maintain foreign aid to Greece and Turkey • two strategically important nations resisting communism US to the rescue! • • • • • The United States agreed to send aid Started at $400 million-Greece and Turkey Truman Doctrine contain communism Lifted pressure off Britain • But what about the rest of Europe? The Marshall Plan • • • Program to rebuild the ruined continent Money to Europe to rebuild CNN - Cold War United Nations • • 1943 at Yalta General Assembly • • • • • Security Council US, Britain, Russia, France, China Ultimate veto power 6 non-permanent members for two year terms (now it is 10) US after the War • Victorious in the war • Homeland undamaged from the ravages of war • Postwar prosperity that created new levels of affluence in the United States Bring the boys home! • • • force • • • • • • For some, coming home was a very difficult transition Availability of jobs 1,360,000 women with husbands in the service had entered the work Migration of African-American workers from the South Reactions of the children they left behind how they would fit into the family system “Shell shock" Marital problems Housing Shortages How do we fix it? • Jobs • Women-go home! • Unemployment pay for GI’s • GI Bill-education loans to all G.I.'s who served 90 days in WWII. • Loans to building companies • Very little offered after the war for psychological problems African-Americans • Going from the South to northern cities, especially Chicago • African American veterans returning to the South after military service in World Wars I and II were often unwilling to be subjected to the humiliation and degradation of segregation and discrimination in the land for which they served and shed blood. The end of the 40’s • 2/3 of Americans owned their homes • First time the number of white collar workers surpassed bluecollar jobs • America had, within a few short years, become a predominantly middle class society. • Read • Zoot suit riots in 1943 Rebuilding Germany • Divided between four countries Berlin is divided too! Rebuilding Japan • • • US- Japan US and Soviet Union in Korea Easier to do. Harry Truman • • • • Good ole boy from Missouri Cursed all the time “the buck stops here” "If you can't stand the heat, get out of the kitchen." Fair Deal • • • • Labor Organizer Expander Civil Rights Strikes …again! • • • Truman and Congress were mad Truman got over it! Congress did not. Taft-Hartley (slave labor law) • 80-day injunction against any strike • secondary boycotts (boycott against an already organized company doing business with another company that a union is trying to organize • outlawed the “closed shop” • affidavits that union officers are not Communists • Congress overrode his veto Let’s Organize • • • • • • • 22nd Amendment 2 terms only National Security Act Department of Defense in 1949 National Security Council CIA Priority given to a new independent Air Force • SAC created Mar. 21, 1946 Amendments • 16 • Income tax • 17 • Senators • 18 • Prohibition • 19 • Women’s vote • 20 • January 20th • 21 • Prohibition repealed Expander • • Expand Social Security Expand TVA Civil Rights • African-Americans have fought in every war in U.S. history. • Executive Order 9981 • calling on the armed forces to provide equal treatment and opportunity for black servicemen • Integration! Crossing the Color Barrier • Jackie Robinson Iron Curtain • Churchill • "From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent.” • US beamed in “Voice of America” • Democratic propaganda • Stalin had not kept promises for free elections • 1948-took over Czechoslovakia • 1948-Now he wanted ALL of Berlin Berlin Air lift “Operation Vittles” • At the height of the Berlin Airlift • two groups of aircraft flew in four-hour blocks around the clock • “ While one group of aircraft was loaded and serviced, the other group was in the air. On the 264-mile route, 32 aircraft were in the air simultaneously. Activity supports a plane taking off and landing every 90 seconds in Berlin.” • Candy Flyer • • • Lt. Gail Halvorson "Candy Bomber" Started Operation "Little Vittles" • Air-drop of candy to Berlin children The Result Israel is real again! 1948 Election • R-Dewey I’m going to give ‘em hell! • • • • Whistle Stop campaign Began a coast to coast train campaign 22,000 miles and gave ten speeches a day Night of the election newspapers gave the victory to Dewey Why did Truman win? • • • • • Dewey did not actively campaign Jewish vote Black vote Labor vote Farmer vote NATO • • • • • • • • • • An attack on one is an attack on all! First strike capability Reds are everywhere! Alger Hiss China gets smaller Communists are stealing secrets Joe McCarthy Korea Let’s look for Reds! House Un-American Activities Committee HUAC Richard Nixon • • • • • • • • What a scumbag! What Whitaker Chambers communist network working within the United States Named Alger Hiss as Communist agent Alger Hiss Special Senate Commission investigating munitions industry Accompanied to FDR to Tehran US delegate to UN General Assembly Clerk to Oliver Wendell Holmes Phi Beta Kappa I don’t know this man. • Denied knowing Chambers • (He recognized Chambers as a man he had known as George Crosley) • • • • Special names Cocker spaniel Vet Household secrets I’ll prove I know Hiss! I’ll Pumpkin papers • Farm in Maryland, where he brought out a hollowed-out pumpkin containing four rolls of microfilm pumpkin • Documents were in what was apparently Hiss's own handwriting China gets Smaller China • Chiang Kai Shek attempted to eradicate the Chinese Communists led by Mao Zedong by • Ultimately failed Ultimately failed • Forced his government to retreat to Taiwan • We recognized Taiwan as China Communist Spies are all around Us • His brother-in-law was a technician fabricating components for the Manhattan Project. • Persuaded him to hand over atomic bomb secrets, which he then relayed to the U.S.S.R. Greenglass cut a Deal Greenglass • “I would not sacrifice my wife and my children for my sister. How do you like that?” you • “And that's what I told the FBI. I said, 'If you indict my wife, you can forget it. I'll never say a word about anybody.'" forget Senator Joe McCarthy February 1950 • “I have here in my hand a list of 205 names known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party, and who, nevertheless are State still working and shaping policy” ? still • Witch hunt for “commies” in the government that lasted for more than five years more • Rarely provided any solid evidence to back up his claims • Ended many a career The end • Televised hearings of the Army fully exposed McCarthy as irresponsible and dishonest • • Read Read Hollywood blacklists (Hollywood 10) Korea! • American and Soviet negotiators hastily agreed to an administrative division of the peninsula at the 38th parallel • 1948 1948 • the nation was divided between two opposing political systems • 1949 • Americans withdrew • Soviets stayed • Korea is smaller North Korea advanced into South Korea in 1950 “Police Action" • President Truman decided to seek United Nations action and to commit troops in response to North Korea's sudden and massive to invasion of South Korea invasion • “Greece of the Far East” • Where were the Soviets? • United Nations' "police action" against the aggressors UN to the rescue! • Successful Inchon landing in September • Followed by rapid military successes • General Douglas Macarthur • the war would be won quickly and that American troops would be "home by Christmas." • Let’s nuke everyone! Who is the aggressor now? Who Controversy Controversy • McArthur wanted to use A-bomb and when Truman said no, was openly critical of Truman. openly • China intervened openly • Soviet Union not-so-openly • UN was thrown back midway into South Korea • Early in the new year, the Chinese army was in turn contained and forced to retreat forced • Because of his insubordination, Macarthur is gone. • Ridgeway takes his place Ridgeway Truman and strikes Truman • 1950-U.S. Army seized all the nation's railroads to prevent a general strike. The railroads were not returned to their owners until two years later. • that threatened strikes would cripple production of weapons and endanger • U.S. Army to seize the nation's steel mills to avert a strike. • The act was ruled to be illegal by the Supreme Court • D-Stevenson D-Stevenson Election of 1952 • • R-Eisenhower '''I Shall Go to Korea'' 'I ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/05/2012 for the course HIST 1302 taught by Professor Sarabostelmann during the Fall '11 term at Collins.

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