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PRC5 - SELF-STRENGTHENING POLICY(1861-1894 CIXI(1835-1908...

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Unformatted text preview: SELF-STRENGTHENING POLICY (1861-1894) CIXI (1835-1908, ruled as co-regent and as regent 1861-1888 and 1898-1908) YEHONALA XIANFENG (reigned 18511861) TONGZHI (reigned 18611874) XIAO ZHEN GUANGXU (1871-1908, reigned 1874-1898) SELF-STRENGTHENING POLICY (1861-1894) PRINCE GONG (1833-98) January 13, 1861 (PRINCE GONG’S MEMORANDUM) OFFICE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE BUSINESS OF ALL FOREIGN COUNTRIES (ZONGLI YAMEN) “Chinese learning for the base, Western learning for use” (Feng Guifen, On the Adoption of Western Knowledge) SELF-STERNGTHENING PROJECTS Zhongkui, the demon chaser SELF-STRENGTHENING POLICY (1861-1894) 1861 (THE FIRST ARSENAL) 1865 (SHIPYARD AT SHANGHAI) BEIYANG FLEET 1866 (SHIPYARD AT FUZHOU) NANYANG FLEET 1881 (THE FIRST RAILROAD) 1882 (THE FIRST TEXTILE FACTORY) BY 1894 (19 STATE OWNED COMPANIES, 101 FOREIGN COMPANIES, AND 75 CHINESE PRIVATE COMPANIES) THE NANJING ARSENAL CHINESE SCHOOLBOYS ON THE WAY TO THE USA (1872) FRANCO-CHINESE WAR (1884-1885) AND SINO-JAPANESE WAR (1894-1895) • THE TREATY OF TIANJIN • • (June 9, 1885) China yields Vietnam to France South China is a French sphere of interests YUAN SHIKAI (18591916) THE TREATY OF SHIMONOSEKI (April 17, 1895) THE TREATY OF SHIMONOSEKI (April 17, 1895) • Indemnity ($200 • • • • • LI HONGZHANG’S NEGOTIATIONS WITH COUNT ITO AND VISCOUNT MUTSU million) Independence of Korea Surrender of Liaodong region, the Pescadores and Taiwan islands Four new open ports Capital investments permitted May 8, 1895 (LIAODONG RETURNED TO CHINA FOR $30 MILLION) ...
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