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Ruled based Expert Systems www.powerpointpresentationon.blogspot.com
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Expert Systems A branch of Artificial Intelligence that makes an extensive use of specialized knowledge to solve problems at the level of an human expert. Natural Lang. Robotics Vision Understandin g Expert Systems Neural Networks
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Why do we need Expert Systems   Increased availability Permanence Reduced Danger Reduced Cost Multiple expertise Increased Reliability Explanation facility Fast Response Steady, emotional & complete response Intelligent tutor
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Expert System building Process Selecting a specific Domain Scoping the project – The purpose/functionality of the expert system. Identifying Human resources such as the Domain expert / Knowledge Engineer, etc. Knowledge Acquisition Designing user interface Implementing the expert system Maintenance and update of Knowledge Base/System
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Expert System components Working Memory o A global database of facts used by the system Knowledge Base o Contains the domain knowledge Inference Engine o The brain of the Expert system. Makes logical deductions based upon the knowledge in the KB. User Interface o A facility for the user to interact with the Expert system. Explanation Facility o Explains reasoning of the system to the user Knowledge Acquisition Facility o An automatic way to acquire knowledge
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Expert System Structure Knowledge Base Inference Engine Explanation Facility Knowledge Acquisition Facility User Interface Memory Working
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Knowledge Types   The knowledge base of expert system contains both factual and heuristic knowledge. Factual knowledge is that knowledge of the task domain that is widely shared, typically found in textbooks or journals, and commonly agreed upon by those knowledgeable in the particular field. o The capital of Italy is Rome o A day consists of 24 hours o Bacteria type a causes Flu type B Heuristic knowledge is the less rigorous, more experiential, more judgmental knowledge of performance. o For instance, in a medical expert system - if patient has spots, it’s probably chickenpox o In a mechanical trouble shooting system - if engine doesn’t turn over, check battery  
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Knowledge Representation Knowledge representation formalizes and organizes the knowledge. The two most widely used representation are Production Rules: A rule consists of an IF part and a THEN part (also called a condition and an action ). if the IF part of the rule is satisfied; consequently, the THEN part can be concluded, or its problem-solving action taken. Rule based expert Systems use this representation, e.g., IF the stain of the organism is gram negative AND the morphology of the organism is rod AND the aerobicity of the organism is anaerobic THEN there is strongly suggestive evidence (0.8) that the class of the organism is Enterobacter iaceae .
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