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Gloucester - suffered a three-year loss of ascendancy...

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Gloucester Gloucester, city (1991 pop. 106,526) and district, Gloucestershire, W central England, on the Severn River. Manufactures in Gloucester include aircraft components, agricultural machinery, railroad equipment, and processed foods. Timber mills and light and heavy engineering works are prevalent. The port is still active but has been eclipsed by Bristol since the 15th cent. Gloucester stands upon the site of the Roman city Glevum. In Saxon times it was the capital of Mercia . Noteworthy is the cathedral (begun 1089) in which Edward II is buried. The Three Choirs Festival is held in Gloucester every third year. A technical college and an old public school are there. Mercia Mercia, one of the kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England, consisting generally of the region of the Midlands. It was settled by Angles c.500, probably first along the Trent valley. Its history emerges from obscurity with the reign of Penda , who extended his power over Wessex (645) and East Anglia (650) to gain overlordship of England S of the Humber River. After his death Mercia
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Unformatted text preview: suffered a three-year loss of ascendancy during which it was converted to Christianity by a Northumbrian mission. Penda's son, Wulfhere, then reestablished a Greater Mercia that finally, under Æthelbald in the 8th cent., extended over all S England. This hegemony was strengthened by Offa (reigned 757–96), who controlled East Anglia, Kent, and Sussex and maintained superiority of a sort over Wessex and Northumbria. He had the great Offa's Dyke built to protect W Mercia from the Welsh. After his death, Mercian power gradually gave way before that of Wessex. The victories of Egbert of Wessex in Mercia established him briefly as overlord. In 874, Mercia weakly succumbed to the invading Danish army, and ultimately the eastern part became (886) a portion of the Danelaw , while the western part was controlled by Alfred of Wessex. Thereafter Mercia had no independent history, although it had one more distinguished ruler in Æthelflæd , Lady of the Mercians....
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