accounting of ATP production by cellular respiration. During cellular respiration, most energy flows from glucose NADH electron transport chain proton-motive force ATP. Let’s consider the products generated when cellular respiration oxidizes a molecule of glucose to six CO 2 molecules. Four ATP molecules are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation during glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. Many more ATP molecules are generated by oxidative phosphorylation. Each NADH from the citric acid cycle and the conversion of pyruvate contributes enough energy to the proton-motive force to generate a maximum of 3 ATP. The NADH from glycolysis may also yield 3 ATP. Each FADH 2 from the citric acid cycle can be used to generate about 2 ATP. Why is our accounting so inexact? There are three reasons that we cannot state an exact number of ATP molecules generated
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