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Unformatted text preview: in the ATP molecule. Reactions that release energy are called exergonic reactions and those that require an input of energy are called endergonic reactions. Endergonic reactions do not occur spontaneously; energy must be supplied to drive the reaction. ATP is continually produced and consumed as illustrated below. Formation of ATP Phosphorylation refers to the chemical reactions that make ATP by adding P i to ADP: ADP + P i + energy ↔ ATP + H 2 O Phosphorylation occurs by two different kinds of reactions discussed below. Substrate-Level Phosphorylation The formation of ATP in the cytoplasm is substrate-level phosphorylation . Energy from a high-energy substrate is used to transfer a phosphate group to ADP to form ATP....
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