Body Position - • middle ear contains 3 ossicles(small...

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Body Position, Hearing sensing body position - lateral line system - helps fish sense objects from vibrations around them o mov’t in environment causes stereocilia (hair) on cupula membrane to move >> action potential >> messages sent to brain o bending of hair can have excitatory/inhibitive effects, depending on direction of bend statocyst - allows invertebrates to move themselves in respect to gravity o cilia embedded in calcium carbonate o cilia bends when position changes vestibular apparatus - saccule, utricle, semicircular canals used to determine position in vertebrates o similar to mechanism used in lateral line system o hair found in otolith membrane o utricle more sensitive to horizontal mov’t, saccule more sensitive to vertical mov’t o semicircular canals - gives sense of angular acceleration ear - actually works better in water than air outer ear - air vibrations travel through ear canal to eardrum (tympanic membrane)
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Unformatted text preview: • middle ear - contains 3 ossicles (small bones): malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), stapes (stirrup) o connected to throat by Eustachian tube to equalize air pressure • inner ear - contains cochlea (contains cochlear duct) o vestibular/tympanic canal located on top/bottom of cochlear duct o all 3 chambers filled w/ fluid (vibrations >> fluid pressure waves) o organ of Corti- contains basilar membrane, hair cells, tectorial membrane o stimulation of hair cells >> action potential >> impulses interpreted as sound o different fiber lengths in basilar membrane >> different pitch • sonar- direction of sound easily determined due to location of 2 ears o distance of sound hard to determine due to environment o echolocation- emitting sounds and using the time it takes for the sound to come back in order to determine location...
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