Chapter 3 Carbon Compounds in Cells

Chapter 3 Carbon Compounds in Cells - Chapter 3 Carbon...

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Chapter 3 Carbon Compounds in Cells I. Ancient Carbon Treasures A. Millions of years ago organic matter was submerged by geologic forces. 1. Coal, peat, and other fossil fuels are the result of ancient photosynthesis that trapped the sunlight’s energy. 2. Now, humans are extracting these nonrenewable resources from the earth. B. Present-day organic substances —biological molecules—are the foundations of the structure and function of living cells. II. Properties of Carbon Compounds A. Oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon are the most abundant elements in living matter. 1. Much of the H and O are linked as water. 2. Carbon can form four covalent bonds with other atoms to form organic molecules of several configurations. 3. Carbon compounds in cells are called organic molecules to distinguish them from simple inorganic molecules, which have no carbon chains or rings. B. Families of Small Organic Compounds 1. These include compounds with at most twenty carbon atoms. 2. They include simple sugars, fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotides. 3. They are used as an energy source or as building blocks for the synthesis of macromolecules: polysaccharides, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. C. Functional Groups 1. Functional groups are atoms or groups of atoms covalently bonded to a carbon backbone. 2. Functional groups convey distinct properties, such as solubility and chemical reactivity, to the complete molecule. D. Condensation and Hydrolysis 1. Small molecules can combine to form large ones because of special proteins called enzymes that can speed up a chemical reaction. 2. In condensation, one molecule is stripped of its H+, another is stripped of its OH–.
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