Chapter 7 Energy

Chapter 7 Energy - Chapter 7 Energy-Acquiring Pathways I....

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Pathways I. Organisms, Carbon, and Energy A. All life forms must obtain carbon and energy. B. Autotrophs are “self-nourishing.” 1. They obtain carbon from carbon dioxide. 2. Photoautotrophs harness light energy. 3. Chemoautotrophs extract energy from chemical reactions. C. Heterotrophs feed on organisms or organic wastes. 1. Heterotrophs acquire carbon and energy from autotrophs. 2. Heterotrophs are animals, protistans, bacteria, and fungi. II. Photosynthesis A. Simplified Picture of Photosynthesis 1. The light-dependent reactions convert light energy to chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH. 2. The light-independent reactions assemble organic molecules using energy from ATP and NADPH. 3. Overall, for glucose formation: 12H 2 O + 6CO 2 ---sunlight--> 6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6H 2 O B. Chloroplast Structure and Function 1. Light-dependent reactions occur in the thylakoid system. a. The thylakoids are folded into grana (stacks of disks). b. The interior spaces of the thylakoid disks are filled with H + needed during ATP synthesis. 2. Carbohydrate formation occurs in the stroma area that surrounds the grana. III. Light-Dependent Reactions A. Overview 1. Pigments absorb light energy and give up electrons. 2. Electron and hydrogen transfers form ATP and NADPH. 3. Electrons are replaced in the pigment molecules.
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Chapter 7 Energy - Chapter 7 Energy-Acquiring Pathways I....

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