Chapter 8 Energy

Chapter 8 Energy - Chapter 8 Energy-Releasing Pathways I....

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Chapter 8 Energy-Releasing Pathways I. The Killers Are Coming! A. All active organisms use energy on a steady basis. B. Carbon dioxide and water are metabolic byproducts produced by living cells. C. At the biochemical level, there is unity among all forms of life. II. ATP-Producing Pathways A. ATP is the prime energy carrier for all cells. B. ATP can be produced by different pathways. 1. Photosynthesis produces ATP to drive carbohydrate synthesis (see Chapter 7). 2. Aerobic respiration (with oxygen) is the main pathway for energy release from carbohydrate to ATP. 3. Fermentation and anaerobic electron transport (both without oxygen) release lesser amounts of energy for transfer to a small number of ATP. III. Aerobic Respiration A. Overview of the Reactions 1. Fermentation yields two ATP; aerobic respiration yields thirty-six ATP. 2. The aerobic route is summarized: C6H12O6 + 6O2 Æ 6CO2 + 6H2O 3. Three series of reactions are required for aerobic respiration: a. Glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate; small amounts of ATP are generated. b. Krebs cycle degrades pyruvate to carbon dioxide, water, ATP, H+ ions, and electrons. c. Electron transport phosphorylation processes the H+ ions and electrons to generate high yields of ATP; oxygen is the final electron acceptor. B. Glycolysis: 1 glucose Æ 2 pyruvate molecules
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Chapter 8 Energy - Chapter 8 Energy-Releasing Pathways I....

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