Chapter 14 From DNA to Proteins

Chapter 14 From DNA to Proteins - Chapter 14 From DNA to...

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Chapter 14 From DNA to Proteins I. Beyond Byssus A. The marine mussel manufactures the ultimate underwater adhesive, and it is a protein. B. All proteins are synthesized according to instructions provided by DNA. II. Protein Synthesis A. The Central Dogma 1. DNA is like a book of instructions written in the alphabet of A, T, G, and C. But merely knowing the letters does not tell us how the genes work. 2. DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides twisted together in a double helix. a. All DNA is composed of nucleotide subunits utilizing the same four bases but in different sequential order from species to species. b. In replication, the two strands unwind to serve as templates for assembly of new complementary strands. 3. Each gene is a linear stretch of DNA nucleotides that codes for the assembly of amino acids into a polypeptide chain. 4. The path from genes to proteins has two steps: a. In transcription, molecules of RNA are produced on the DNA templates in the nucleus. b. In translation, RNA molecules shipped from the nucleus to the cytoplasm are used as templates for polypeptide assembly. 5. The central dogma is expressed thus: transcription translation DNA—————Æ RNA—————Æ proteins B. Overview of the RNAs 1. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) combines with proteins to form ribosomes upon which polypeptides are assembled. 2. Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries the “blueprint” for protein assembly to the
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Chapter 14 From DNA to Proteins - Chapter 14 From DNA to...

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