Chapter 17 - Chapter 17 From Gene to Protein Lecture...

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Chapter 17 From Gene to Protein Lecture Outline Overview: The Flow of Genetic Information The information content of genes is in the form of specific sequences of nucleotides along the DNA strands. The DNA inherited by an organism leads to specific traits by dictating the synthesis of proteins and of RNA molecules involved in protein synthesis. Gene expression , the process by which DNA directs protein synthesis, includes two stages called transcription and translation. Concept 17.1 Genes specify proteins via transcription and translation. The study of metabolic defects provided evidence that genes specify proteins. In 1909, Archibald Garrod was the first to suggest that genes dictate phenotype through enzymes that catalyze specific chemical reactions in the cell. Garrod suggested that the symptoms of an inherited disease reflect a person’s inability to synthesize a particular enzyme. o He referred to such diseases as “inborn errors of metabolism.” Garrod speculated that alkaptonuria, a hereditary disease, is caused by the absence of an enzyme that breaks down a specific substrate, alkapton. o Research conducted several decades later supported Garrod’s hypothesis. Progress in linking genes and enzymes rested on the growing understanding that cells synthesize and degrade most organic molecules in a series of steps, a metabolic pathway. In the 1930s, George Beadle and Boris Ephrussi speculated that each mutation affecting eye color in
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Chapter 17 - Chapter 17 From Gene to Protein Lecture...

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