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Chapter 33 Tissues - Chapter 33 Tissues Organ Systems and...

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Chapter 33 Tissues, Organ Systems, and Homeostasis I. Animal Structure and Function: An Overview A. Animals are structurally and physiologically adapted to be able to: 1 Maintain internal operating conditions within some tolerable range. 2 Locate and acquire nutrients and dispose of wastes. 3 Protect themselves against injury or attack from viruses, bacteria, and other agents. 4 Reproduce and often provide for the offspring during early development. B. Complex animals exhibit levels of organization. 1 A tissue is an aggregation of cells and intercellular substances that function in one or more specialized activities (division of labor). 2 Various types of tissues can combine to form organs, such as the heart. 3 Organs may interact to form organ systems, such as the digestive system. II. Animal Tissues A. Tissue Formation 1 Germ cells in the parental gonads produce either sperm or eggs by meiosis; all other cells of the body are called somatic cells. 2 Fusion of gametes forms a zygote, which undergoes mitosis to form an embryo. 3 Cells in the embryo become arranged into three primary tissues: a. Ectoderm gives rise to skin and nervous system. b. Mesoderm gives rise to muscle, skeleton, and the organs of circulation, reproduction, and excretion. c. Endoderm gives rise to the lining of the gut and its associated organs. B. Epithelial Tissue (protection, secretion, absorption) 1 General Features a. In epithelial tissues, cells are linked tightly together; there may be one or more layers.
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