Chemiosmotic Phosphorylation

Chemiosmotic Phosphorylation - ATP synthase ....

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Chemiosmotic Phosphorylation Oxidative Phosphorylation Most ATP is produced in the mitochondrion by a process that involves pumping hydrogen ions (protons) into the intermembrane space . Energy is required to pump hydrogen ions into the intermembrane space. The enzyme ATP synthase is able to use the energy of this osmotic gradient to produce ATP as the hydrogen ions move by osmosis back into the matrix of the mitochondrion. Photophosphorylation Photophosphorylation occurs in the chloroplast. The diagram below shows a chloroplast that has been cut lengthwise to reveal the interior.
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A hydrogen ion gradient is also used to produce ATP in the chloroplast (diagram below). In this case, sunlight provides energy to pump hydrogen ions into the thylakoid . The energy of their movement back into the stroma by osmotic pressure is used to produce ATP. The enzyme that uses a hydrogen ion concentration gradient to phosphorylate ADP is
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Unformatted text preview: ATP synthase . Photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation (discussed above) both use an osmotic concentration gradient of hydrogen ions to produce ATP, therefore these two processes are often referred to as chemiosmosis. Catabolic and Anabolic Reactions The energy-related reactions within cells generally involve the synthesis or the breakdown of complex organic compounds. Anabolic reactions are those that synthesize compounds. Energy is required for these reactions. Reactions that break down molecules are called catabolic reactions . Energy is released when molecules are broken down. ATP produced by catabolic reactions provides the energy for anabolic reactions. Anabolic and catabolic reactions are therefore coupled (they require each other) through the use of ATP. In either kind of reaction, additional energy must be supplied to start the reaction. This energy is the activation energy ....
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This note was uploaded on 01/04/2012 for the course BSC BSC1005 taught by Professor Orlando,rebecca during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.

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Chemiosmotic Phosphorylation - ATP synthase ....

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